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Swansea shocks Louis Van Gaal at Old Trafford   


Manchester United has started the 2014-2015 English premier league season with a shocking 2-1 home defeat against Swansea City.

Louis Van Gaal was hoping to start his career at Old Trafford on a bright note, but Monk's men had other ideas. The Welsh team took the lead through Ki Sung Yueng in the 28th minute against the run of play. Phil Jones forced Lukasz Fabianski to make a great safe in the first half.

The Red devils were not too impressive and didn't show the sign of a team that is ready to make the top four at the end of the season. Javier Hernandez, Juan Mata and Wayne Rooney were on the starting line up, but Swansea didn't give them the chance to create clear cut chances.

It was a match that witnessed just four corner kicks that were taken by the home side. The last time United lost a match on the opening day of the league was in 1972. While the Welsh team also claimed their first victory over their fancied hosts for the first time in 83 years.

The former Dutch manager deployed a 3-5-2 formation that also featured Ashley Young. The Englishman later got injured and was replaced by Lingard.

After the restart, Rooney got the equaliser for the home side. The captain scored via a scissors kick to revive the hope of the Old Trafford faithfuls. He was denied a brace when his free kick came off the crossbar,

Gylfi Sigurdsson scored the winning goal for Swansea after United defenders failed to take clear their lines.

Garry Monk's men recorded the first three points of the new season.


Manchester City hammered in London   


Manchester City succumbed to a 2-1 defeat against West Ham United at the Upton Park in London.
The premier league match kicked off during lunch time on Saturday 25th October 2014 with both sides in the top four.

Manuel Pellegrini's men were placed second before the match while Sam Allardyce's London club were fourth.

Morgan Amalfitano put the home team in front after 22 minutes of action in which Joe Hart had made a couple of saves for City.

Enner Valencia's cut back was converted by Morgan from close range.

Despite having 67% of the ball possession,  Manchester City failed to break down the Hammers and went into the break by a goal down.
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After the restart,  the hosts managed to prevent the league champions from breaching their defence.

Diafra Sakho made it 2-0 to West Ham in the 75th minute after going close three minutes earlier.

Aguero's effort came off the crossbar in the 65th minute before Sakho scored his sixth consecutive league goal.

David Silva scored a brilliant goal in the 77th minute, but that was not enough to deny West Ham United a famous victory.

Jelavic and Toure failed ti equalise for the visitors during injury time.

The Londoners defeated Liverpool by 3-1 a month ago.


EPL Week 13 Round Up 2014-2015   


The Barclays English premier league continued over the weekend as Chelsea dropped two vital points at the Stadium of Light.
The Londoners were held to a goalless draw by Sunderland. Jose Mourinho's men are still on top of the table after 13 round of matches.

At the Saint Mary's stadium, Southampton were beaten 3-0 by Manchester City. The defending champions played a larger part of the second half with just 10 men after Mangala was sent off.
The one man shortage couldn't prevent Manuel Pellegrini's from grabbing the vital points that took them to the second spot on the EPL log standings.

In other games, Manchester United crushed Hull City by 3-0 at the Old Trafford stadium while Liverpool laboured to overcome Stoke City by a Glen Johnson's goal.
The Englishman nodded in the ball after a rebound that followed Rickie Lambert's effort.

Arsenal moved into the top 5 with a 1-0 away win against West Bromwich Albion. Danny Welbeck's header was enough to see off a resolute West Brom team at The Hawthorns.

Roberto Soldado scored his first league goal in 8 months as Tottenham Hotspur defeated Everton by 2-1 at the White Hart Lane.

Newcastle United suffered an uncommon defeat in the hands of West Ham United at the Upton Park. The Magpies had won about four games in a row before that 1-0 reverse.

At the Liberty stadium, Swansea City settled for a 1-1 draw at home to Crystal Palace.

Burnley and Aston Villa also played a one all draw.

Week 14 matches takes place on December 2nd/3rd.

Leicester City will host Liverpool while Manchester United will host Stoke City.

The Anfield giants will be without Balotelli,Suso and Flanagan due to injury,while Sakho won't be fit to start the match.


Civilian Signs to Tooth & Nail   


Tooth & Nail Records is very pleased to announce that Ryan Alexander’s CIVILIAN has signed to the label. Their sophomore release You Wouldn’t Believe What Privilege Costs will be released on October 21st. Dive in to the world of YWBWPC right here:

An incredibly mature collection of songs, the road Alexander took to arrive at YWBWPC provides at least a hint of an answer to how we find ourselves faced with a record so simultaneously beautiful and uncomfortable. From 2004 to 2009 Alexander divided his time between songwriting and leading a 20,000-person congregation at a Florida church. “Over time, this began to feel fake - like I was telling people what they wanted to hear” says Alexander. This dissonance birthed CIVILIAN.

Civilian’s first release, Should This Noose Unloosen – produced by Dan Hannon of Manchester Orchestra - was his first attempt at adding nuance to social conversations. When Alexander relocated to Nashville in 2014 he hadn’t planned on writing at all. “A guy told me he was a studio manager and that I should come by and do a song.” It turned out the studio was the legendary Sound Stage (Cash, Earle, Haggard, Dylan) on Nashville’s original Studio Row. “I wrote seventeen songs over the next two weeks” says Alexander. “I hardly left my house.”

“YWBWPC is an attempt to examine the intersection of love and politics and science and hope and nihilism. These aren’t mutually exclusive ideas” says Alexander. “I want people to know that what they think and say really matters and that nothing deep and meaningful should be off limits. We should boldly sit at the table of ideas and share our stories. This is what it is to be human.”

Read Civilian's full bio on their Artist Page.



Part of the Picture: Lesbian, gay and bisexual people's alcohol and drug use in England: Case Studies    


Buffin, Jez (2013) Part of the Picture: Lesbian, gay and bisexual people's alcohol and drug use in England: Case Studies. Project Report. The Lesbian and Gay Foundation, Manchester.


Notes on Hebrew Baroque Poetry   


Dvora Bregman
Ben Gourion University of the Negev
Some General Observations

The present discussion offers some observations concerning the treatment of several Baroque qualities in Hebrew Baroque poetry. It will focus on the work of three poets that brought that poetry to its peak in Italy, namely, Moses Zacuto (c. 1610 - 1697), Jacob Frances (1615-1667) and his brother Immanuel (1617- c.1710). [1] The Baroque nature of their poetry did not go unnoticed by scholars. [2]

Here, however, I would like to survey that issue in the light of the recently published corpus of Zacuto's poems. The two hundred poems that make up that corpus allow for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the poetical product of that most prolific poet in its entirety, and consequently a fresh review of his oeuvre, as well as that of the other poets mentioned, as I hope to demonstrate here.

In seventeenth-century Italy conditions for introducing Baroque manners into Hebrew poetry were optimal. [3] Italian and Sephardic Jews were naturally fluent in Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese and the learned among them, being well-versed in those literatures became easily familiar with their Baroque styles. These styles, however, were not only readily available, and as "state of the art" poetry highly attractive, but also easily adoptable, having much in common with Hebrew literary traditions.

Immanuel Frances summed up his ars poetica "Meteq Sefatayim" or "Sweetness of lips" arguing that a poem, even if perfect in prosody, that lacks "sharpness" is nothing more then a body without a soul. [4] He thus coined the characteristic quality of Hebrew Baroque poetry: "sharpness", or ḥ arifut in Hebrew. In this term he wrapped together agudeza, acutezza, cultismo, conceptismo, and meraviglia with no distinction, attesting to its triple roots, the Italian, the Spanish, and the Hebrew. The term ḥ arifut or sharpness is a commonplace in the field of Talmud, where ḥ arif denotes a sophisticated scholar; and an extremely sophisticated method of study is called pilpul - meaning peppering, or savoring with hot spices. The ways in which the Holy Scriptures are being customarily read include Baroque-like technicalities, such as the drawing together of sayings located far apart in the Scriptures on account of a word or an expression they have in common, with the intention of illuminating one with the other; the use of hypothetical extraordinary situations to prove a point; extraction of hidden messages from the Scriptures by applying unusual meanings to words, and more such clever methods that might easily fit into Frances' scope of poetical "sharpness". [5] Biblical, as well as traditional poetical sources could supply expressions fit to be transformed into sharpness. But the models for Baroque sharpness were of course contemporaneous Italian and Spanish.

Immanuel Frances, regardless of his zealous approach to Hebrew displays not only a familiarity with, but also a high regard for the surrounding poetries. Reprimanding a Jewish poet for preferring Italian over Hebrew he says: "What business have you with the poem of Marin (Marino) and Maron (Virgil)? The song of Merari sing, and of Gershon (Psalmists). [6] In the same vein he conditions successful composition of Hebrew sonnets on "purity of language" which means avoiding any foreign linguistic influence. But then he adds, that "One who is not well-versed in the poems of the Christians will not succeed with them." [7] In a second version of the text "Italian" replaces "Christians." But our three poets were evidently no less close to the Iberian sources as to the Italian. A manuscript containing Jacob's poems in his own hand writing that had fortunately survived [8] includes numerous self-directed notes as well as three of his poems in Portuguese. [9] Moses Zacuto left several letters to family and friends in that language. Naturally, the great poets of the "siglo de oro" also had their appeal for the Hebrew authors.

Let us now examine the treatment of several Baroque traits by those poets, with some attention to these three nurturing sources.


The Bizarre

The brothers Frances showed poetic "sharpness" by describing bizarre poetic situations. In a sonnet with an octave composed by Jacob and a sestet added posthumously by Immanuel, the speaking persona is in love with a woman's portrait. [10] In a state of disillusionment (or "desengaño" [11]) the lover puts his folly in perspective:

Tell me, wooden tablet, explain how it is
That I upon the tablet of my heart have you engraved?
Since the day we met only you I craved,
No rest have I known since then, alas, no peace.

Why and upon what my eye a stream of tears
Became, that chokes me like a wave?
How my happy heart to naught I gave?
My soul I pour onto one who lifeless is.

Chained by colored chains unto a piece of wood
I am, since when I saw upon it copied
An image of the beautiful gazelle,

And then declared: Oh, would
That I be matter upon which she is embodied,
Though only color - in her shade to dwell. [12]


But rational disillusionment hardly affects the poet-speaker's emotional infatuation caused by art. Hence the solution the frustrated lover suggests at the end of the poem: his turning into matter, a concept which in medieval philosophical symbolism is opposed to substance, which means losing one's soul; dying. At the same time it is also highly erotic. Stretching ad absurdum the impact of love, the poet raises awareness of its fatal power. Reminiscent of the myth of Pygmalion, this sonnet is also its opposite: it is not the soulless object's metamorphosis into a living creature that ends it but the lover's metamorphosis into a dead object.

A similarly bizarre situation unfolds in a sonnet by Immanuel Frances. The lover is attracted to two women at the same time and prays to Love to free him from his bondage by either granting him an additional heart or else having his heart slashed in two. [13] The heart is treated here as both a synecdoche for love and a biological organ. The "slashed heart" can be perceived in medieval poets such as Samuel ha-Nagid and Solomon ibn Gabirol [14], but there it helps convey not so much bizarreness as longing or sorrow.

In his Portuguese Gramatica Hebraica (Hamburg 1635), Moses Abudiente commended the popular baroque genre of the echo-poem [15] as an efficient tool to convey "singulares curiozidades." [16] Thus he disclosed the Baroque quest for the uncommon and affirmed its poetic value in Hebrew theory, though in the Portuguese tongue.


Obsession with death

The above sonnets present the bizarre in its extremity: Death, the epitome of the unfathomable and the obscure. J.M. Cohen saw the Baroque as an "age in which western man was haunted by the image of death." [17] This hypothesis can find no better verification than in the poetry of Jacob Frances and Moses Zacuto, the most Spanish oriented of the three poets. It is not the old, detached "ubi sunt" that fills many of Jacob's poems with the image of death, but fascination with its very essence, and the feeling of its immediate proximity. Hence his preoccupation with his own death, constant even "under the wedding canopy," and his attraction to a "dance macabre" painting. He is perhaps the only Jewish poet that encourages a jealous husband to "put a knife to the throat" of an unfaithful wife or wishes to do so to himself, or longs to become a corpse in order to score a kiss from a young widow In several of his sonnets a physician or adversary proves to be Death in disguise. In one sonnet he indulges in a poetic hallucination of his own identification with its image. [18]

There is no doubt about Zacuto's fascination with death. Of his two plays, one is an Inferno, the other has at its center an argument concerning human afterlife. Out of 200 of his poems, more than eighty are funerary poems and dirges. And death is a common factor in his twenty moral poems, in which his vision of death might verge on nihilism: "Vehakol Ayin" "and all is nothing,", as concludes one of them [19] - perhaps an intensified echo of Góngora's famous "Mientras por competir con tu cabello" with the sharp "en nada" at its conclusion. But there annihilation, impressive as it may be, is still restricted to human beauty alone. [20]. Could Zacuto's nihilism touch Divinity itself? Perhaps. Here we might encounter Zacuto as an ardent Lurianic kabbalist, who believes in the human power to affect the cosmos and the Godly flow within the sefirot for better or worse [21] and whose religious convictions agree with Baroque moods.


Motion and fleeting time

"An entire series of concepts playing a role in different aspects of baroque culture were linked to movement as the fundamental principle of the world and human being: the notion of change, modification… transformation, time… " [22] The soul's mystical trip to heaven is the subject of many of Zacuto's poems. Even in the necessarily short texts of tombstone poems that process of metamorphosis is evident in terms of dynamic movement, when the elemental factors of the situation change their identity. By use of homonym and metaphor a diseased lady may become a moon among the stars; a graveyard is transformed into a pleasant estate and a blessed valley, a date is turned into "a heavy day" and a "year of goodness". All that shifting occurs within the scope of a five-line poem. The soul, in many of those poems is in figurative motion: it goes up, travels, flies; set free, it follows the sun, runs, hurries, turns away, goes away, returns, escapes and is led. [23] More than once quickness of motion is explicit, if not dazzling with frequent ups and downs, as in a tombstone poem for R. Nathan Shapira that may be paraphrased in a somewhat truncated fashion: Up went Rabbi Nathan, who dives unto the deepness of knowledge; up from the depth of evil to the depth of goodness, five hundred miles to the tree of life; up to the depth of Creation which is Wisdom, up to the end of Mercy, to turn hell into grace at the end of time. [24] Even this much simplified paraphrase retains something of the forceful dynamic mood of the original.

"Rabbi Immanuel ben Solomon who was the first to introduce sonnets into the holy tongue - were mostly not to my taste, since he wrote them with a heavy hand" says Immanuel Frances in his ars poetica [25] . In the seventeenth century when awareness of the passing of every single moment was made unavoidable by the exact mechanical measuring of time, the fourteenth century bipartite sonnet, carefully divided into symmetrical units, that "took its time" to develop and allowed the reader or listener time for reflection [26] seemed intolerably slow. The Frances brothers preferred now a new type of sonnet, in which the ancient sense of fleeting time (Ps 39: 6 - 7; 103: 15 - 16; 144: 4; Job 4: 1 - 2; 14: 1 - 2, 10) was infused with the Baroque sense of emergency. Employing a technique invented by Giovanni Della Casa several decades earlier they would phrase a whole sonnet as a single sentence, to be read in one breath. [27]

Jacob Frances infused with motion the old-time genre of lament, in a dirge for a Venetian rabbi by employing a continuous metaphor that identified the dirge with the concept of a ship [28]. Splitting into subordinate metaphors (the author is the ship's builder, "time's occurrences" and the author's tears - its building materials, the diseased - its mast, etc.) it stretches over fifteen lines of elevated prose. [29] Then, this "ship of lament" (in Hebrew a heterograph: (oniyat aniyah), that symbolizes the transience of life suddenly changes into an even more dynamic battleship, to wage a paradoxical war against Time, the epitome of transience. Already Moses Ibn Ezra compared fleeting time to a ship that carries the unaware passenger towards death. [30] But he did it through simile that is naturally static, while metaphor in its very definition as a shift of meaning from one semantic field to another implies movement. Zacuto, too, used the ship simile, but while Ibn Ezra emphasizes its moving "slowly", Zacuto emphasizes its speed: "quickly." [31]

In Frances' dirge metaphoric movement is indeed three-fold, as it is generated from a metaphor, whose "vehicle" is a moving object, and that vehicle undergoes change. Ibn Ezra, to continue the comparison, conveys a complete surrender to Time that symbolized both chronology and fate, whereas Frances fights back, helped, to enhance the paradox, by the enemy's typical weapons - "occurrences" - recruited to build his metaphorical battle craft. But with defeat inevitable, Baroque stormy movement dies down and gives way to the old-time unsophisticated, plain formula, to conclude the dirge: "God will say 'enough' to our troubles" - a good example of the poet's way of integrating the Baroque mood with traditional convention.


Appearances and reality

If Jacob Frances, relying on falling in love with a portrait, presented giving in to an appearance as an inadvertent, fatal affair (in a second sonnet on the same theme responsibility is put on "blind cupid" [32]), Moses Zacuto regarded it as sin, committed by free choice [33]. In his Inferno (a dramatic piece forged in the Spanish Quintilla verse-form) the protagonist-sinner, is demanded to face facts: that he is dead (and not as he imagines - alive and in his sick bed); that he is in the underworld, beholding the flames of hell (not in some remote quarter where kitchen stoves are located outdoors); that he must be punished (not as he expects - to be exempted by ransom). To help him see all that a destroying angel appears, and answers his frightened exclamations with hinting echoes. Here are several lines from that echoing dialogue in translation:

- Out of the haters' den you emerge  
Against me! Who has called for you? You
- Who lured me here with his lie? I
- When have I become your pastime? Past time
- Take ransom, my stones precious Ashes
- All dear plants I have planted  
In valley and upon hill Nil


But the sinner refuses to face facts and shuns the hinting echoes:

"I had enough of your bat-qol! Speak up clearly! Tell me what these blazing fires are!"

Since bat-qol means in Hebrew both echo and the voice of God, this declaration means a rejection of divine truth.

The Baroque-confused labyrinth-like existence was forced on the sinner as punishment, but he was not denied free choice. Only when he fails to take advantage of the chance to escape confusion by repentance is it further augmented by the destroying angel's answering monologue. Fraught with unfathomable archaic language, no less ambiguous than any poem by Góngora, it is more stunning than clarifying as it reveals the sinner's crimes. But his speech becomes easy to follow when he goes on to the departments of Hell that function as purgatory. Here sinners are forced to face the facts they refused to face of their own free will. Purged from the sin of evading the truth they are allowed a glimpse at Paradise, as they admit they have sinned. The play ends in this metaphysical grasp of truth [34].

Reminiscent of Jean de la Ceppède's Théorèmes, Moses Zacuto's Hagiographical drama Yesod Olam, or Foundation of the World, (the traditional designation for Abraham the Patriarch), represents the richness of the mask that covers reality by a great variety of verse-form and meter, that constitute the text throughout. No less marvelous is the backbone for that prosodic construction that is formed by sonnet sequences of complex symmetry, now attached now detached by rhyme, meter, and syntax. This complex symmetry is of such a degree of precision that it not only leaves no doubt about the existence of a whole prosodic plan for the play whose end is now missing, but makes possible an hypothetical reconstruction of that plan as a whole . [35] Against that aesthetic appearance harsh reality is revealed when the Patriarch is sentenced to death. But earthly reality succumbs to Divine power when the Patriarch is saved by its miraculous intervention. Here Zacuto demonstrates his metaphysical approach: his belief in the existence of Divine truth beyond appearances and within reality.

F. J. Warnake might have included Zacuto's plays in his observations concerning the religious poetry of several Baroque poets, for their "concern with the divine … that … expresses itself … through the acting out of a tens dramatic situation, an agon in which the contestants may be God and the soul, the soul and some personified abstraction…" [36].

The Baroque worldview in terms of appearances and reality, the concept of sharpness and the metaphysical approach, are all combined and conveyed in the most straightforward way in the Hebrew Emblem riddle, invented by Moses Zacuto, who modeled himself on the Spaniard Alonso de Ledesma, as proposed by Dan Pagis, the investigator of the genre [37]. Famous throughout the siglo de oro, Ledesma is still considered in research to be the initiator, or at least one of the initiators, of Spanish Conceptismo. Zacuto, in parallel, drew to the Hebrew version hundreds of followers, fascinated by its typical sharpness. One of these was Immanuel Frances, who composed two such riddles, and commented on the genre in his ars poetica, stressing its sharpness and pointing to its double entity: "[it is] a sharp saying, that sharpens the mind of those who attempt to solve it, to render her misleading phrasing straight, and to unmask her from the hints that cover her face, for she is disguised." [38] Pagis paid much attention to the element of sharpness evident in Frances' definition, not so much to the issue of appearance versus reality which is no less evident in it [39]. Pagis completed his study while Zacuto's own riddles - seventeen in number - were still in manuscript, except for three that he solved and published. [40] I solved the rest and published the whole collection more then fifteen years later. [41] With the solutions juxtaposed with the riddling texts the aspect of appearances versus reality springs to the eye. Zacuto's emblem riddles, except for one, were intended for weddings. They  are crammed with linguistic wit, and may indeed be defined as continuous conceits (their length may exceed fifty lines). As such they shed the mood of Baroque confusion, [42] hardly desirable at a wedding. That mood is uplifted by the solutions that show a way out of it. Zacuto's solutions are often symbols for sacred entities: water or wheat that stand for the Law, or Hebrew letters that imply holy sefirot. Jewish mysticism that believes in the magical power of the Hebrew word mingles here with Góngoroean sophistication. [43]


Impact of the new science

The impact of the newly revealed cosmos may be observed in the poems of our three Baroque poets. Immanuel Frances involved a "chanochialo" as a means of proof in a dramatic "Dispute." [44] A lot of attention was paid to celestial objects, frequently with a modern flavor, and mostly to the sun, queen of the heliocentric system. [45] The same poet explains that the moon gets its light from the sun, and then belittles himself before a respected rabbi, in line 14 of a sonnet, making a sharp point: You are a sun, I only a moon. [46] He devotes thirteen lines of a sonnet to the splendor of the sun. Indeed, a turned, sharp simile is introduced into the last line: to give that celestial luminary the praise it deserves the poet compares it to his bride. But we hear nothing of the bride, and the sun remains the main topic. This poetic adoration of the sun is a novelty in Hebrew poetry that tended to give priority to the moon as sacred symbol ever since the lunisolar Jewish calendar was established. Moses Zacuto stays loyal to the traditional preference in his obviously Kabbalistic poems [47] while extensively employing the novel attitude in many of the rest. [48] The theme of one of his riddles is the sun. [49] In an introduction to a dirge on his dead teacher he compares him to the sun, repeating the word sun (shemesh) serves as an anaphoric link for not less then fourteen sentences. [50]

Interestingly enough, none of the three poets discloses any sign of the "disturbing affect" that the new science had on Baroque contemporary poets. [51] Rather, they seem to regard the new cosmos as a reflection of the infinite greatness of the Lord. Zacuto mirrors it in a grand style: Like a painter who applies bold brush- strokes of paint to a canvas he lets his muse fill a greatly expanded text by drawing one picture after another and leap with great speed from one pole of the earth to the next, from the lowest heaven to the highest. When a group of scholars concluded their study of a Talmudic tractate he commemorated the event with a long poem, where the starry system, the sun, the moon, the Zodiac, angles, the beasts of the holy chariot, the seven skies, the elements of nature, biblical rivers, living creatures on earth, in the air and in the seas - all take part in the celebration [52].


* * *

The three poets into whose treatment of Baroque manners I have tried to provide some insight may all be regarded as poets of wit wonderfully conveyed in Hebrew, and as innovators that combined Baroque manners with Hebrew literary traditional convention. But Zacuto stands alone, as I tried to demonstrate, as a poet of the Kabbalah who used Baroque manners to express his own worldview, by means of the magical power of the Hebrew word.



1. For short biographies of the three poets including bibliographical references cfr. D. Bregman (ed.) Tzeror Zehuvim, sonetim Ἰvryim mi-tekufat ha-Renaseans ve-ha-Baroq (A Bundle of Gold, Hebrew sonnets from the Renaissance and the Baroque) Jerusalem 1995, p. 242, pp. 305-306, p. 382. For a detailed biography of Zacuto see D.Bregman (ed.) Essa et Levavi, Poems by Moses Zacuto, Jerusalem 2009, pp.5- 24. Editions of the Frances brothers' poetry are mentioned in the following notes.

2. I will mention some of it in the following notes.

3. I will not deal here with the problem of social criticism concerning literary borrowing from foreign sources. For that cfr. D. Bregman, The Golden Way, The Hebrew sonnet during the Renaissance and the Baroque, trans. Ann Brener, Tempe, Arizona, 2006, pp.77, 100 - 103; in more detail Cfr. D. Bregman, Parish ha-hitkablut shel ha-sonet ha- 'ivri", in Tarbitẕ 56 (1987) pp.109 - 123. Cfr. also D. Bregman, "Their rose in our garden: Romance elements in Hebrew Italian poetry" in Renewing the Past, Reconfiguring Jewish Culture from al-Andalus to the Haskalah, Philadelphia 2003, pp. 50 - 59. Jacob Frances was the most vulnerable of the three to social criticism.

4. H. Brody (ed.) Meteq Sefatayim me'et ha- meshorere Rabbi Immanuel Frances , Krakow 1892, p. 53

5. Cfr. F.J. Warnake, Versions of Baroque, New Haven and London 1972,  p. 18 - 19.

6. S. Bernstein (ed.) Diwan le Rabbi Immanuel ben David Frances, Tel Aviv, 1932, p. 49 (see also p. 241); Immanuel Frances, Meteq Sefatayim, cit, in Brody's introduction, P. 11. See also D. Bregman Tzeror Zehuvim, cit., p. 253.

7. Ḥ. Brody (ed.) Meteq Sefatayim, cit., p. 48; Oxford, Bodleian Library 2000, Poc.7, fol. 11; London, British Library, Add. 27095 (Cat. Margoliouth 1077), fol. 12.

8. Oxford, Bodleian Library, (Cat. Neubauer 1991).

9. His Portuguese notes cfr. P. Naveh (ed.), Kol Shirey Yaacov Frances, Jerusalem 1969, within the editor's notes. Two Portuguese poems cfr.ibid, pp. 564 - 574. As the editor observed, their poetic ripeness suggests the existence of a broad unknown poetic product in that language. .

10. "Luach emor", in D.Bregaman (ed.) Tzeror zehuvim, cit., p. 308. The sonnet was first published in P. Naveh (ed.), Kol Shirei Yaakov Frances, cit., with a misleading mistake in line 14. Concerning the main motif of that sonnet in Giambatista Marino and several Marrinisti - crf. A. Rathouse, "Ahava lidioken, shenei sonetim Ἰ vryim min ha- mea ha-sheva esre al reka sifrut ha-baroq h-italkit" in Italia 2 (1981) pp. 30 - 47.

11. On engaño / desengaño and ser/ parecer (illusion / disillusion, be / seem to be) as a basic concepts in Spanish Baroque cfr. J. Robbins, "Arts of Perception, the Epistemological mentality of Spanish Baroque" New York 2007.

12. The translation is mine.

13. D. Bregman, Tzeror Zehuvim, cit. p. 389.

14. Ibn Gabirol, "I am the man", in P. Cole (ed.) The Dream of the Poem, Hebrew Poetry from Muslim and Christian Spain, 950 - 1492, USA 2007 pp. 86 - 89. (Cole translated the original "heart" as "mind": "a man whose mind has been split by his mind" (line 3). Cfr. also my "'El turbante blanco' " como motivo en la poesía secular de Salomon ibn Gabirol" in J. Targarona Borrás, Á. Sáenz-Badillos (eds. and trans.) pp. 151 - 172.

15. I am currently working on a monograph of the Hebrew version of the genre. For now see my "' Nefashot be-zivug nichnasot ke-gever be-alma' ('Souls enter into unity like a man with a maiden') A Manuscript reveals the name of an unknown author of an echo poem put to music by Salamone de Rossi", in h-aaretz Literary Supplement, September 22, 2010; " 'Hen ata tihie al biti even' ('For now a stone lies on my daughter'), gravestone poems by Moshe Zacuto", in Studies in Arabic and Hebrew Letters in Honor of R. P.Scheindlin, Piscataway, 2007, pp. 13-21 [Hebrew section].

16. Gramatica Hebraica, Por Moshe filho de Gideon Abudiente Em Hamburgo 3 de Elul, Anno da criasam 5393, P. 163 (erroneously printed: 173).

17. J. M. Cohen, The Baroque Lyric, London 1963 p. 30

18. D. Bregman (ed.), Tzeror Zehuvim, cit., p. 312, 362, 317:3, 309, 329 and more, and p. 327.

19. "Mi hu asher yimshol" (Who is it that will reign), an echo poem, in D. Bregman (ed.), Essa et Levavi, cit. p. 321.

20. Sonnet no. clxvi, in various publications.

21. Cfr. D. Bregman, "Moses Zacuto Poet of Kabbalah", in Renaissance Sources and Encounters, Leiden: Brill, 2011, pp.170 - 181.

22. J. A. Maravall, Culture of the Baroque, analysis of a historical structure, Trans. T. Cochran, in Theory and History of Literature Vol. 25, Manchester 1986, p 175. On the notions of fleeting time and measured time in Spanish and Italian Baroque cfr. ibid. p.185 onwards; J. M. Cohen, The Baroque Lyric, cit., pp. 15 - 29.

23. D. Bregman (ed.) Essa et Levavi, cit., p. "Achuza neima", p. 394;pp. 376, 377; 379, 382, 393; 383, 394; 384, 389, 397 - 398; 385; 390; 398; 400, 402.

24. "Alah roshodesh ziv" ibid, p. 164

25. H. Brody (ed.), Meteq Sefatayim, cit., p. 48

26. In the sonnets of Immanuel of Rome reflection is systematic. Crf. D. Bregman, The Golden Way, cit., p. 57 - 64.

27. Cfr. Ibid, pp. 163 - 165.

28. Cfr. F.J. Warnake, Versions of Baroque, cit., p. 71 - 74.

29. P. Naveh, Kol Shirei Yaakov Frances, cit. pp. 522- 523; J.M. Cohen, The Baroque Lyric, cit. pp.17-18 cites Jean du Bellay:"I am the mariner, my thoughts are the sea, sighs and tears are the winds and the storm … "

30. Moses Ibn Ezra, "Yizqor gever bimeiayav", in. Ḥ. Brody (ed.) Shirat Ha-ol shel Moshe Ibn Ezra, Berlin 1934, Vol.1, p. 67.

31. D. Bregman (ed.) Essa et Levavi, cit., p. 320.

32. "Eich 'eese dod", in D. Bregman (ed.), Tzeror Zehuvim, cit., p. 310.

33. On appearances versus reality in Baroque poetry cfr. F. J. Warnake, Versions of Baroque, cit., pp. 21 - 51; J. Robbins, "Arts of Perception" cit.

34. On hell functioning as purgatory in Zacuto's Inferno cfr. D. Bregman "Amimut u-vehirut be- 'tofte aruch' le-Rabbi Moshe Zacut" in P'eamim, Studies in Oriental Jewry 96 (2003) pp. 35 - 52.

35. D. Bregman, The Golden Way, cit., pp. 256 - 260.

36.F.J Warnake, Versions of Baroque, cit., p. 93.

37. D. Pagis, Al Sod Hatum, le-toledot ha- ḥ ida ha-'Ivrit be-Italia uve-holand, (A Secret Sealed, Hebrew Baroque Emblem Riddles), Jerusalem 1986, pp. 28 - 33; pp.. 32, 113, 119; D. Pagis, "Yesodot baroqiyim ba-shirah ha-'Iivrit be-Italya al pi sug sifruti bilti yadua" (Baroque Elements in the Hebrew Poetry in Italy, based on an unknown literary genre), in E. Fleischer (ed.), Poetry Aptly Explained, studies and essays on Medieval Hebrew Poetry, Jerusalem 1993, pp. 256 - 270.

38. H. Brody, Meteq Sefatayim, cit., p. 54.

39. Pagis, Al Sod H atum, cit., p. 41.

40. Ibid, Appendix, pp 225 - 238.

41. D.Bregman (ed.), Essa et Levavi, cit. pp. 137 - 221.

42. Pagis, Al Sod H atum, cit., p.15.

43. Collin Thompson perceived that approach in Fray Luis de Leon's sermons and translations from the Hebrew Bible. Cfr. C. P. Thomson, The Strife of Tongues, Fray Luis de Leòn and the Golden Age of Spain, Cambridge, 1988, pp. 151, 162, and more.

44. Obviously set to music, it was intended to be staged by the Hebrew Literary Academy of Florence. Cfr. S. Bernstein (ed) Diwan le Rabbi Immanuel ben David Frances, cit. pp. 195 - 203. Cfr. F.J Warnake, Versions of Baroque, cit., p. 102 - 103.

45. E.G. P. Naveh, Kol shirei Yaakov Frances, cit., Appendix 5, pp. 575 - 578; D. Bregman (ed.), Tzeror Zehuvim, cit., p. 385, 386, 388, 392, 393, 392, 396, 401, 407, 410.

46. Ibid, p. 396.

47. Cfr. D. Bregman (ed.), Essa et Levavi, cit., p. 445.

48. Ibid, pp.170, 92,100,105,119, 147, 200, 251, 256, 278, 282, 313, 323, 337, 347, 381, 383, 384, 386, 397, 479. This is of course a partial list only.

49. Ibid, p. 166

50. Ibid, p. 351.

51. F.J Warnake, Versions of Baroque, cit., pp.141-143.

52. "Tziveot kedoshim romemei shaday", in D. Bregman (ed.) Essa et Levavi, cit., pp. 471 - 483.



The Euro and open regionalism in the politics of 'permanent renegotiation' and the international political economy of monetary power: a critical engagement with 'new constitutionalism'    


Strange, Gerard (2012) The Euro and open regionalism in the politics of 'permanent renegotiation' and the international political economy of monetary power: a critical engagement with 'new constitutionalism'. In: European regionalism and the left. Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719085734


Identifying education staff development needs in the South West of England using a collaborative survey approach    


Goodman, B. , Jackson, D. , Latter, S. and Girot, E. (2003) Identifying education staff development needs in the South West of England using a collaborative survey approach. In: RCN International Nursing Research Conference, Manchester, UK, 10-12 April 2003. Available from:


Arsenal Buru Rekor Barca   


Selebrasi gelandang Arsenal Samir Nasri seusai mencetak gol ke gawang Manchester City dalam lanjutan premiership di City of Manchester Stadium, 24 Oktober 2010. Arsenal unggul 3-0.

Dalam enam musim terakhir, tidak ada klub yang sanggup menyamai prestasi sempurna yang ditoreh Barcelona di babak penyisihan grup Liga Champions musim 2002-2003. Yaitu meraih hasil maksimal dari enam pertandingan alias mencatat enam kali kemenangan dan mengumpulkan 18 poin.

Kini, Arsenal bakal memburu rekor Barca dengan menargetkan pulang ke London dengan raupan tiga angka setelah menjalani matchday keempat babak penyisihan Grup H melawan tuan rumah Shakhtar Donetsk di Donbass Arena, Rabu (3/11) lusa malam waktu setempat atau Kamis (4/11) dinihari WIB.

Di pertemuan pertama yang berlangsung di Emirates Stadium, The Gunners tampil perkasa dan menghancurkan Donetsk dengan skor sangat telak 5-1 (2-0). Kemenangan lawan pasukan asuhan Mircea Lucescu bakal melapangkan jalan bagi Arsenal untuk menyamai rekor Barca sekaligus tampil sebagai jawara grup.

Namun, bos Arsene Wenger mengaku tidak akan berjudi dengan menurunkan dua pemain kuncinya, kapten tim Francesc Fabregas dan Alexandre Song andaikata keduanya belum mampu melepaskan diri dari cedera. “Saya akan memberikan waktu istirahat kepada sejumlah pemain dan melakukan sejumlah perubahan,” tegas Wenger.

Selain Arsenal, terdapat empat tim yang juga berpeluang menyamai rekor Los Blaugrana, yaitu Olympique Lyon (Grup B), Bayern Muenchen (Grup E), Chelsea (Grup F) dan Real Madrid (Grup G). Dari tiga partai yang telah dilalui keempat tim tersebut sama-sama mencatat hasil sempurna.(MEG/The Sun)

Sumber :


Review: Lady In Waiting by Susan Meissner   


It is time for a FIRST Wild Card Tour book review! If you wish to join the FIRST blog alliance, just click the button. We are a group of reviewers who tour Christian books. A Wild Card post includes a brief bio of the author and a full chapter from each book toured. The reason it is called a FIRST Wild Card Tour is that you never know if the book will be fiction, non~fiction, for young, or for old...or for somewhere in between! Enjoy your free peek into the book!

You never know when I might play a wild card on you!

Today's Wild Card author is:

and the book:

WaterBrook Press; Original edition (September 7, 2010)
***Special thanks to Cindy Brovsky of WaterBrook Press, a division of Random House, Inc., for sending me a review copy.***


Susan Meissner has spent her lifetime as a writer, starting with her first poem at the age of four. She is the award-winning author of The Shape of Mercy, White Picket Fences, and many other novels. When she’s not writing, she directs the small groups and connection ministries at her San Diego church. She and her pastor husband are the parents of four young adults.

Visit the author's website.

Product Details:

List Price: $13.99
Paperback: 352 pages
Publisher: WaterBrook Press; Original edition (September 7, 2010)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0307458830
ISBN-13: 978-0307458834



Upper West Side, Manhattan


The mantle clock was exquisite even though its hands rested in silence at twenty minutes past two.

Carved—near as I could tell—from a single piece of mahogany, its glimmering patina looked warm to the touch. Rosebuds etched into the swirls of wood grain flanked the sides like two bronzed bridal bouquets. The clock’s top was rounded and smooth like the draped head of a Madonna. I ran my palm across the polished surface and it was like touching warm water.

Legend was this clock originally belonged to the young wife of a Southampton doctor and that it stopped keeping time in 1912, the very moment the Titanic sank and its owner became a widow. The grieving woman’s only consolation was the clock’s apparent prescience of her husband’s horrible fate and its kinship with the pain that left her inert in sorrow. She never remarried and she never had the clock fixed.

I bought it sight unseen for my great aunt’s antique store, like so many of the items I’d found for the display cases. In the year and half I’d been in charge of the inventory, the best pieces had come from the obscure estate sales that my British friend Emma Downing came upon while tooling around the southeast of England looking for oddities for her costume shop. She found the clock at an estate sale in Felixstowe and the auctioneer, so she told me, had been unimpressed with the clock’s sad history. Emma said he’d read the accompanying note about the clock as if reading the rules for rugby.

My mother watched now as I positioned the clock on the lacquered black mantle that rose above a marble fireplace. She held a lead crystal vase of silk daffodils in her hands.

“It should be ticking.” She frowned. “People will wonder why it’s not ticking.” She set the vase down on the hearth and stepped back. Her heels made a clicking sound on the parquet floor beneath our feet. “You know, you probably would’ve sold it by now if it was working. Did Wilson even look at it? You told me he could fix anything.”

I flicked a wisp of fuzz off the clock’s face. I hadn’t asked the shop’s resident and unofficial repairman to fix it. “It wouldn’t be the same clock if it was fixed.”

“It would be a clock that did what it was supposed to do.” My mother leaned in and straightened one of the daffodil blooms.

“This isn’t just any clock, Mom.” I took a step back too.

My mother folded her arms across the front of her Ann Taylor suit. Pale blue, the color of baby blankets and robins’ eggs. Her signature color. “Look, I get all that about the Titanic and the young widow, but you can’t prove any of it, Jane,” she said. “You could never sell it on that story.”

A flicker of sadness wobbled inside me at the thought of parting with the clock. This happens when you work in retail. Sometimes you have a hard time selling what you bought to sell.

“I’m thinking maybe I’ll keep it.”

“You don’t make a profit by hanging onto the inventory.” My mother whispered this, but I heard her. She intended for me to hear her. This was her way of saying what she wanted to about her aunt’s shop—which she’d inherit when Great Aunt Thea passed—without coming across as interfering.

My mother thinks she tries very hard not to interfere. But it is one of her talents. Interfering when she thinks she’s not. It drives my younger sister Leslie nuts.

“Do you want me to take it back to the store?” I asked.

“No! It’s perfect for this place. I just wish it were ticking.” She nearly pouted.

I reached for the box at my feet that I brought the clock in along with a set of Shakespeare’s works, a pair of pewter candlesticks, and a Wedgwood vase. “You could always get a CD of sound effects and run a loop of a ticking clock,” I joked.

She turned to me, childlike determination in her eyes. “I wonder how hard it would be to find a CD like that!”

“I was kidding, Mom! Look what you have to work with.” I pointed to the simulated stereo system she’d placed into a polished entertainment center behind us. My mother never used real electronics in the houses she staged, although with the clientele she usually worked with—affluent real estate brokers and equally well-off buyers and sellers—she certainly could.

“So I’ll bring in a portable player and hide it in the hearth pillows.” She shrugged and then turned to the adjoining dining room. A gleaming black dining table had been set with white bone china, pale yellow linen napkins, and mounds of fake chicken salad, mauvey rubber grapes, and plastic croissants and petit fours. An arrangement of pussy willows graced the center of the table. “Do you think the pussy willows are too rustic?” she asked.

She wanted me to say yes so I did.

“I think so, too,” she said. “I think we should swap these out for that vase of Gerbera daisies you have on that escritoire in the shop’s front window. I don’t know what I was thinking when I brought these.” She reached for the unlucky pussy willows. “We can put these on the entry table with our business cards.”

She turned to me. “You did bring yours this time, didn’t you? It’s silly for you to go to all this work and then not get any customers out of it.” My mother made her way to the entryway with the pussy willows in her hands and intention in her step. I followed her.

This was only the second house I’d helped her stage, and I didn’t bring business cards the first time because she hadn’t invited me to until we were about to leave. She’d promptly told me then to never go anywhere without business cards. Not even to the ladies room. She’d said it and then waited, like she expected me to take out my BlackBerry and make a note of it.

“I have them right here.” I reached into the front pocket of my capris and pulled out a handful of glossy business cards emblazoned with Amsterdam Avenue Antiques and its logo—three As entwined like a Celtic eternity knot. I handed them to her and she placed them in a silver dish next to her own. Sophia Keller Interior Design and Home Staging. The pussy willows actually looked wonderful against the tall jute-colored wall.

“There. That looks better!” she exclaimed as if reading my thoughts. She turned to survey the main floor of the townhouse. The owners had relocated to the Hamptons and were selling off their Manhattan properties to fund a cushy retirement. Half the décor—the books, the vases, the prints—were on loan from Aunt Thea’s shop. My mother, who’d been staging real estate for two years, brought me in a few months earlier when she discovered a stately home filled with charming and authentic antiques sold faster than the same home filled with reproductions.

“You and Brad should get out of that teensy apartment on the West Side and buy this place. The owners are practically giving it away.”

Her tone suggested she didn’t expect me to respond. I easily let the comment evaporate into the sunbeams caressing us. It was a comment for which I had had no response.

My mother’s gaze swept across the two large rooms she’d furnished and she frowned when her eyes reached the mantle and the silent clock.

“Well, I’ll just have to come back later today,” she spoke into the silence. “It’s being shown first thing in the morning.” She swung back around. “Come on. I’ll take you back.”

We stepped out into the April sunshine and to her Lexus parked across the street along a line of townhouses just like the one we’d left. As we began to drive away, the stillness in the car thickened, and I fished my cell phone out of my purse to see if I’d missed any calls while we were finishing the house. On the drive over I had a purposeful conversation with Emma about a box of old books she found at a jumble sale in Oxfordshire. That lengthy conversation filled the entire commute from the store on the seven-hundred block of Amsterdam to the townhouse on East Ninth, and I found myself wishing I could somehow repeat that providential circumstance. My mother would ask about Brad if the silence continued. There was no missed call, and I started to probe my brain for something to talk about. I suddenly remembered I hadn’t told my mother I’d found a new assistant. I opened my mouth to tell her about Stacy but I was too late.

“So what do you hear from Brad?” she asked cheerfully.

“He’s doing fine.” The answer flew out of my mouth as if I’d rehearsed it. She looked away from the traffic ahead, blinked at me, and then turned her attention back to the road. A taxi pulled in front of her, and she laid on the horn, pronouncing a curse on all taxi drivers.

“Idiot.” She turned to me. “How much longer do you think he will stay in New Hampshire?” Her brow was creased. “You aren’t going to try to keep two households going forever, are you?”

I exhaled heavily. “It’s a really good job, Mom. And he likes the change of pace and the new responsibilities. It’s only been two months.”

“Yes, but the inconvenience has to be wearing on you both. It must be quite a hassle maintaining two residences, not to mention the expense, and then all that time away from each other.” She paused but only for a moment. “I just don’t see why he couldn’t have found something similar right here in New York. I mean, don’t all big hospitals have the same jobs in radiology? That’s what your father told me. And he should know.”

“Just because there are similar jobs doesn’t mean there are similar vacancies, Mom.”

She tapped the steering wheel. “Yes, but your father said . . .”

“I know Dad thinks he might’ve been able to help Brad find something on Long Island but Brad wanted this job. And no offense, Mom, but the head of environmental services doesn’t hire radiologists.”

She bristled. I shouldn’t have said it. She would repeat that comment to my dad, not to hurt him but to vent her frustration at not having been able to convince me she was right and I was wrong. But it would hurt him anyway.

“I’m sorry, Mom,” I added. “Don’t tell him I said that, okay? I just really don’t want to rehash this again.”

But she wasn’t done. “Your father has been at that hospital for twenty-seven years. He knows a lot of people.” She emphasized the last four words with a pointed stare in my direction.

“I know he does. That’s really not what I meant. It’s just Brad has always wanted this kind of job. He’s working with cancer patients. This really matters to him.”

“But the job’s in New Hampshire!”

“Well, Connor is in New Hampshire!” It sounded irrelevant even to me to mention the current location of Brad’s and my college-age son. Connor had nothing to do with any of this. And he was an hour away from where Brad was anyway.

“And you are here,” my mother said evenly. “If Brad wanted out of the city, there are plenty of quieter hospitals right around here. And plenty of sick people for that matter.”

There was an undercurrent in her tone, subtle and yet obvious, that assured me we really weren’t talking about sick people and hospitals and the miles between Manhattan and Manchester. It was as if she’d guessed what I’d tried to keep from my parents the last eight weeks.

My husband didn’t want out of the city.

He just wanted out.


Una habanera altruista. Por Domingo Figarola Caneda.   


Enriqueta Augustina Rylands (1843-1908). Detalle de una escultura de John Cassidy. © John Rylands Library.
Los que en el extranjero se consagran a investigaciones de historia y bibliografía de Cuba se ven sorprendidos con frecuencia por el hallazgo de cubanos que de un modo u otro se han distinguido o figurado lejos de la tierra natal, siendo en ella poco conocidos o completamente ignorados. A esto contribuye en mucho, sino en todo, el hecho de no llevar esos cubanos apellidos españoles, por ser hijos a lo menos de padres extranjeros, o porque tratándose de cubanas, al contraer matrimonio con un extranjero, han perdido el uso de los apellidos que por nacimiento les corresponde.
Pero a nuestro entender, ninguna cubana habrá sido menos conocida en su tierra natal, y a pesar de haber ido al sepulcro llevando una notoriedad nada común, cual lo fue Mrs. Enriqueta Augustina Rylands.
Y con el ánimo de hacerla conocer de nuestros lectores, ofrecemos las noticias que hemos reunido, ya buscadas por nosotros, ya suministradas por el único miembro que de la familia existe, ya por último, extractadas de una revista (1) y de un folleto (2).
Por los años de 1820 a 1824 vino a establecerse en el comercio de La Habana el súbdito inglés Mr. Stephen Cattley Tennant, y en 1831, ya en dicha ciudad existía la razón social de S. C. Tennant y Comp., dedicada, entre otros negocios comerciales, a la consignación de buques que hacían la carrera entre Liverpool y La Habana.
Y por más que nuestra capital era entonces bastante reducida, esta firma comercial era sin duda importante, puesto que en sus anuncios de salidas de buques se publica la de la fragata Byron, sin otra dirección que la expresada firma. Más tarde, o sea de 1844 a 1860, sabemos que existió esta casa de comercio, primeramente en la calle de los Mercaderes número 24, después en la de Cuba número 12, y por último, en la misma de los Mercaderes número 83, pero girando bajo la razón social de Clark, Tennant y Ca., y luego Tennant y Ca.
Enriqueta Augustina. © John Rylands Library.
Pero no era uno de tantos comerciantes que pasan la vida absorbidos por los negocios, frecuentando muy poco la sociedad y extraños por completo a toda manifestación intelectual del campo de las ciencias o de las letras. Por el contrario, mantenía relaciones de amistad con lo mejor de nuestra clase social, y en ella era muy estimado. Con el mismo aprecio se le recibía en el trato de las personas intelectuales, y su interés por el adelanto de nuestras letras se traducía en hechos como el de contribuir, a la par que los cubanos más distinguidos de la época, al sostenimiento de publicaciones como la selecta Revista Bimestre Cubana.
Contaba cuarenta años de edad cuando contrajo matrimonio (1840), habiendo tenido por lo menos tres hijos, un varón y dos hembras, gemelas y nacidas en La Habana en 1843, y una de las cuales fue Enriqueta Agustina. Desde edad temprana comenzó la educación de esta niña en una escuela privada de Nueva York, después continuada con todo esmero en París, y por último en Londres y mucho más cerca de su padre, pues ya éste se había retirado de los negocios y residía en Liverpool desde, 1848.
Vuelta al hogar paterno, compartía las atenciones propias de su estado con la lectura y la dedicación a estudios serios. Por la educación que había recibido, y por no conocer a su tierra natal más que aquello que la familia le contaría, es natural que en sus hábitos y costumbres no pudiera sentirse otra cosa que una joven inglesa, pero con toda esa cultura y ese refinamiento que se obtienen sólo por medio de la educación francesa, y sin duda que su padre, al educarla como lo hizo, se propuso, y hubo de conseguir, hacer de su hija una mujer de sólido fondo de instrucción y de ideas elevadas.
Enriqueta Augustina Rylands (1843-1908). Escultura de John Cassidy en mármol de Saravezza. © John Rylands Library.
El 6 octubre 1875 contrajo matrimonio con Mr. John Rylands, muy rico fabricante de Manchester, y el 11 diciembre 1888 quedaba viuda y poseedora de una fortuna inmensa. Entonces juzgó que ningún destino mejor podía tener esa fortuna que emplearla en fundar una institución que perpetuara el nombre de su marido, y fuera al mismo tiempo un centro consagrado al desenvolvimiento de los estudios en general; y teniendo en cuenta el interés que Mr. Rylands había manifestado siempre por los  estudios de Teología; decidió que esta materia ocupara el primer lugar en la institución futura. He aquí el origen del monumento erigido a la Bibliografía en Manchester, bajo la denominación de The John Rylands Library.*
La construcción del magnífico edificio dio comienzo en 1889, mas no de esa manera corriente como se emprenden no pocas obras consagradas a donativos públicos, de las que se encomiendan los proyectos a los arquitectos, y éstos calculan como juzgan más conveniente y luego presentan aquellos. La obra de la señora Rylands se hizo conforme a los planos del técnico Mr. Basil Campneys; pero ¡cuánto hubo en ellos que fue debido a la misma señora! Mujer de inteligencia y observadora, en sus diferentes viajes por Europa habíase formado un gusto lo bastante depurado y exacto para tener conciencia de lo que deseaba y debía ser su obra, y por lo misino, lejos de dejarse llevar por la impaciencia, bien natural y explicable en casos como éste, tranquila miraba la lentitud con que avanzaban los trabajos, pero sin hallarse por esta causa separada un solo día de aquella empresa que tenía esclavizada toda su existencia.
Enriqueta Augustina. © John Rylands Library.
Después de diez años, llegó un día en que el edificio se encontrase listo del todo para poder utilizarse, y fue entonces cuando la donadora se hizo doblemente admirable, porque demostró que no había consagrado únicamente su tiempo y sus energías a la construcción del edificio. Habíase dedicado, además, a la adquisición de valiosas colecciones de impresos y manuscritos con los cuales enriquecer la dádiva, según vamos a verlo.
Durante el año de 1892 anuncióse que el conde de Spencer había determinado vender la más célebre entre todas las colecciones particulares de libros, conocida por "La Biblioteca Althorp". El conde se veía obligado a renunciar a esta riqueza bibliográfica, mas estableció por condición primera de la venta, que el comprador lo había de ser por toda la colección, para así evitar que se dispersasen las preciosidades que formaban en conjunto aquel tesoro. Primeramente el British Museum, atraído por la serie de Caxton de esta colección, hizo proposiciones que no pudieron ser aceptadas, como no lo fueron otras varias hechas por ciertas bibliotecas de América. Sin embargo, la suerte parecía inclinarse a favor de una de estas últimas ofertas, cuando hubo de llegar este asunto a conocimiento de la señora Rylands, quien apreciando entonces la doble y grande conveniencia que proporcionaría a Inglaterra la adquisición de aquella biblioteca, tanto porque iría a ostentarse en los salones del nuevo edificio, cuanto porque no saldría para el extranjero, determinó pagar por aquel tesoro las 25,000 libras esterlinas que se pedían (123,000 pesos), y de este modo los 40,000 volúmenes que componen la colección Althorp vinieron a constituir una parte de la Biblioteca Rylands, con gran contento de los eruditos e investigadores ingleses.  Y todavía hizo más en este sentido la espléndida donadora: supo que se vendía la magnífica colección de manuscritos del conde de Crawford, y la compró también mediante una suma importante; y con mucha sorpresa por parte de la generalidad, la negociación llevóse a término de la manera más tranquila sin publicidad alguna, como acostumbraba hacer siempre esta señora. La colección citada compuesta de más de seis mil manuscritos no era, sin embargo, conocida de la mayor parte. Conocíanla cierto número de especialistas, y nada más. Los manuscritos orientales y occidentales que posee le dan carácter propio, así como los incunables se la dan a la colección comprada a Spencer. Las pastas de varios manuscritos son de un género y de un valor excepcionales; están hechas de marfil y de metal y datan de los siglos XII y XIII. Esta colección, respecto a sus encuadernaciones, ocupa en el mundo el tercer lugar, perteneciendo el primero a la de la Biblioteca Nacional de París, y el segundo a la de la Real de Munich.
Enriqueta Augustina. © John Rylands Library.
Relatemos ahora un acontecimiento muy señalado tanto de la biografía de la señora Rylands, como de la historia de la ciudad de Manchester. Este tuvo lugar el 6 de octubre 1899, día en que se cumplieron veinticuatro años de aquel que fue de bodas para la donadora, y quien lo escogió como ninguno más solemne para la inauguración oficial de la Biblioteca. Sin duda que más de una vez meditó en la serie de hechos que aquel aniversario venía a conmemorar: fecha de su matrimonio, terminación del monumento levantado para perpetuar el nombre de su esposo, y por último, la hora de la realización más satisfactoria del proyecto al cual había consagrado por largos años todos sus pensamientos y todas sus energías. ¿Qué otra fecha más merecedora que esta podía haber elegido? El edificio se encontraba terminado de un todo, y tras sus paredes se contaban 130, 000 volúmenes, y entre éstos, muchos de mérito y de precios tales, que hubo de ser considerada aquella, por una autoridad como el bibliógrafo francés M. Renouard, "la más bella y la más rica colección particular de Europa". Así, pues, la inauguración fue anunciada, y a presenciarla acudieron, de todos los puntos de Europa, numerosas representaciones. El discurso de apertura, pronunciado por el Reverendo Dr. Fairburn, Provisor del Colegio de Mansfield (Oxford), fue en todos sentidos una oración digna de aquel acontecimiento extraordinario. Al mediodía la señora Rylands fue invitada a pasar al palacio del Ayuntamiento, y allí le fue conferido el Derecho de Ciudad, o sea la distinción más elevada que la Municipalidad puede conceder, y en este caso de mucha más importancia todavía, por ser la señora Rylands la única mujer a quien se ha conferido este alto honor que muchas damas de primer rango ambicionarían. Después, y a nombre de esta señora, su hermano, Mr. Stephen Joseph Tennant, leyó un sentido discurso de gracias, y por último, tuvo lugar la ceremonia de la firma estampada en el tradicional pergamino de los ciudadanos libres de Manchester.La obra estaba hecha y regalada a la ciudad, ésta había correspondido confiriéndole a la espléndida donadora en ceremonia extraordinaria los honores más altos; pero todo no había terminado: el propósito de la señora Rylands no consistía en haber levantado un monumento para regalarlo a la ciudad y que ésta quedase obligada a sufragar los gastos de entretenimiento de aquel. Entendía la generosa y precavida señora, que la filantropía no debe traer aparejada condición ninguna que obligue a hacer erogaciones a la parte beneficiada, y en este sentido hizo más grandiosa obra, dotándola con una renta anual de 5,000 libras esterlinas (25,000 pesos) para su entretenimiento y desarrollo, y además, siempre que se presentaron oportunidades de adquirir libros raros y curiosos, acudió on nuevas sumas para comprar aquellos y enviarlos a la Biblioteca en calidad de nuevos donativos.
Enriqueta Augustina. © John Rylands Library.
Otro rasgo de la manera espléndidamente generosa que caracterizaba a la señora Rylands, lo tienen muchos lectores en este hecho: La Dirección de la Biblioteca consideró que un retrato al óleo representando a la fundadora de aquel centro, debía ser colocado en el mejor lugar del mismo. Con este propósito se solicitó el consentimiento y la cooperación de la señora, quien respondió que se le dejase reflexionar antes de decidirse. Tiempo después recibía la Biblioteca el donativo de una estatua de la señora Rylands, hecha en hermoso mármol de Saravoize, de tamaño más que el natural, de una fidelidad acabada, y obra del reputado escultor John Cassidy. La estatua, cuya reproducción en grabado venido de Manchester es el que aparece al frente de este trabajo, fue descubierta el 12 de diciembre de 1907 en la sala principal de la Biblioteca, en presencia de un corto número de personas, y pronunciando el discurso inaugural, a ruego del hermano de la señora, Mr. Stephen J. Tennant, el vicerector de la Universidad, Dr. Alfred Tlapkinson.
Llegamos ya al día más doloroso en la historia de la vida de esta benefactora admirable. El 4 de febrero de 1908, a los sesenta y cinco años, murió en Torquay, ciudad del Sur de Inglaterra, donde por lo dulce del clima y por la acción terapéutica de las aguas, había ido a buscar alivio para sus padecimientos. Y moría sin gozar de aquella dicha que Chateaubriand acordaba a quienes desaparecían de entre los vivos "mirando el campanario que los vio nacer", y sin gozar tampoco de otra dicha para ella más grande: la de cerrar por última vez los ojos llevando en ellos la imagen del monumento glorioso que su ilustración y su generosidad dejaban a la cultura de los tiempos modernos. Y aun a la hora de tomar sus postreras disposiciones, no olvidó a su querida Biblioteca, pues al contrario, como si no fueran suficientes los donativos con los cuales la había favorecido, aumentó el capital de aquélla con 200,000 libras esterlinas más (1.000,000) de pesos), en bonos del Tesoro al 4 por 100, y cuya suma, unida al capital que ya poseía la Biblioteca, produce una renta de 13,000 libras esterlinas (53,000 pesos), cantidad bastante para sostener y aun agrandar el establecimiento de una manera digna de su fundadora.
Agosto, 1909

Quarterly Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester, octubre de 1908
The John Rylands Library, Manchester, 1902

Publicado por primera vez en la Revista de la Biblioteca Nacional de Cuba en 1909 y retomado en ese mismo año en El Fígaro, 8 de agosto de 1909.

The John Rylands Library es la biblioteca de depósito no jurídica más grande del Reino Unido, así como la tercera biblioteca académica más grande del país después de las de Oxford y de Cambridge. También tiene la recaudación más grande de recursos electrónicos de cualquier biblioteca en el Reino Unido. La más vieja parte de la biblioteca, fundada en la memoria de John Rylands por su esposa Enriqueta Augustina Rylands como institución independiente, se sitúa en un edificio gótico en Deansgate, el centro Victoriano de la ciudad de Manchester. Este sitio contiene una colección importante de libros y de manuscritos históricos, incluyendo el más viejo documento existente del Nuevo Testamento, el papiro P52 - el fragmento de San Juan.

Enriqueta Augustina. Escultura de John Cassidy en su versión más pequeña y en bronce, conservada en el Muriel Stott Conference Centre de Manchester ©.


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Intensive breast screening in BRCA2 mutation carriers is associated with reduced breast cancer specific and all cause mortality Evans, Dafydd Gareth; Harkness, Elaine F.; Howell, Anthony; Wilson, Mary; Hurley, Emma; Holmen, Marit Muri; Tharmaratnam, Kukatharmini; Hagen, Anne Irene; Lim, Yit Yoong; Maxwell, Anthony James; Møller, Pål Background The addition of annual MRI screening to mammography has heightened optimism that intensive screening along with improved treatments may substantially improve life expectancy of women at high risk of breast cancer. However, survival data from BRCA2 mutation carriers undergoing intensive combined breast screening are scarce. Methods We have collated the results of screening with either annual mammography or mammography with MRI in female BRCA2 mutation carriers in Manchester and Oslo and use a Manchester control group of BRCA2 mutation carriers who had their first breast cancer diagnosed without intensive screening. Results Eighty-seven BRCA2 mutation carriers had undergone combined (n = 34) or mammography (n = 53) screening compared to 274 without such intensive screening. Ten year breast cancer specific survival was 100 % in the combined group (95 % CI 82.5–100 %) and 85.5 % (95 % CI 72.6–98.4 %) in the mammography group compared to 74.6 % (95 % CI 66.6–82.6 %) in the control group. Better survival was driven by lymph node status (negative in 67 % of screened vs 39 % of unscreened women; p < 0.001) and a significantly greater proportion of intensively screened women had invasive breast cancers <2 cm at diagnosis (74.6 % vs 50.4 %; p = 0.002). Conclusion Intensive combined breast cancer screening with annual MRI and mammography appears to improve survival from breast cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers. Data from larger groups are required to confirm the effectiveness of combined screening in BRCA2 carriers.


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