Yesterday 00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 
2020-08-15 10:11:46
Next Page: 25
          

Tequileras en capacitación para exportar   

Cache   

Esta preparación consiste en una asesoría internacional de publicidad para mandar su producto a China

Guadalajara.- Las casas tequileras interesadas en exportar al gigante asiático iniciaron el proceso de capacitación a través del seminario “Internacionalización del Tequila en China”, mismo que forma parte de la campaña de promoción que arrancó en octubre pasado con una inversión de 20 millones de pesos de la Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación (Sagarpa).

Como parte de la campaña, que es coordinada por la Cámara Nacional de la Industria Tequilera (CNIT), los productores de tequila recibieron asesoría de la agencia internacional de publicidad Mcgarrybowen, una de las más importantes e influyentes de Asia.

“Tenemos que reconocer que el Tequila en China no es muy conocido, entonces el esfuerzo promocional debe estar dirigido a que es una bebida muy buena y que es de México”, aseguró Andy Ho, asesor de la agencia publicitaria.

Mcgarrybowen se encargará de las actividades de promoción y relaciones públicas en China, y de acuerdo con Andy Ho, la campaña publicitaria se realizará a escala nacional, aunque con énfasis en Beijing, Shanghai y el sur del país.

Sobre el mercado potencial que tiene la bebida tradicional mexicana, el experto afirmó que China tiene una población de 1.2 billones de habitantes y “la gran mayoría de quienes son mayores de edad, son consumidores y tienen capacidad de compra”.

No obstante, aclaró que parte de la estrategia de promoción para el tequila es que será dirigido a las generaciones más jóvenes-aquellas que nacieron en las décadas de los 80 y los 90-, toda vez que es más fácil poderles presentar conceptos nuevos como lo es el tequila.

“Después del acuerdo entre los presidentes de México y China para permitir la entrada del tequila a ese país las cosas empezaron a cambiar, así pudimos constatar que en restaurantes, bares y centros de consumo aparecían más marcas de tequila, sin embargo falta tener una mayor capacitación a los consumidores sobre el tequila”.

En el seminario participan tanto las empresas globales que ya tienen presencia en China pero que requieren mayor impulso para penetrar con mayores ventajas en ese mercado, como 19 casas productoras que planean incursionar en él.

Las marcas tequileras que ya tienen presencia en el mercado chino son Olmeca, José Cuervo, Tequila 1800, Pepe López, Camino Real, Sauza, La Tarea, El Charro, Don Diego, Agavita, Don Julio, El Conquistador, Patrón, Hornitos, El tesoro de mi tierra, Isa y Tequila Riazul.

promo@eleconomista.com.mx

CRÉDITO: 
Patricia Romo, El Economista

          

Tequileros realizan misión comercial en China   

Cache   

Guadalajara, Jal. Representantes de 15 empresas tequileras y de la Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación (Sagarpa), inician esta semana una misión comercial a China.

El objetivo es lograr que tras el acuerdo alcanzado en junio del 2013 entre México y el gigante asiático, para que ese país eliminara las barreras no arancelarias a la bebida mexicana, China se convierta en el segundo mercado para las exportaciones tequileras, después de Estados Unidos.

Hasta ahora, 76% del tequila que se vende al exterior tiene como destino la Unión Americana, seguido de Alemania, España, Francia y Rusia, entre otros países.

Portencial

A China, pese al tamaño de su mercado, únicamente se exportaron 524,960 litros de la bebida nacional en el 2013. No obstante, esa cifra ya refleja los beneficios del convenio con el país asiático, toda vez que significó un aumento de casi 28% respecto de los 410,250 litros que se exportaron en el 2012.

Según estadísticas del Consejo Regulador del Tequila, las exportaciones a China siguieron creciendo en el primer cuatrimestre de este 2014 cuando se vendieron 182,473 litros, que suponen un aumento de 11.8% en comparación con el mismo periodo del año pasado.

Recibieron asesoría y apoyo para la campaña

En el viaje de negocios a Shanghai y Beijing participan en total 15 empresas tequileras micro, pequeñas y medianas, que previamente fueron capacitadas por especialistas en ese mercado.

Desde octubre del año pasado, la Sagarpa, a través de Apoyos y Servicios a la Comercialización Agropecuaria, otorgó una bolsa de 20 millones de pesos a la Cámara Nacional de la Industria Tequilera para desarrollar la campaña de posicionamiento del tequila en China, que incluye la presente gira de trabajo.

Las empresas que participan en la misión son Arette, El Charro, El Destilador, Feria de Jalisco, Gran Orendain, Herencia de Plata, Honorable, Huizache, Mayorazgo, Pueblo Viejo, Realeza Mexicana, Sol de México, Tres Mujeres, 30-30 y 1519.

Los industriales tequileros sostendrán encuentros de negocios con profesionales del sector de bebidas espirituosas; también visitarán puntos de venta y centros de consumo y se reunirán con organismos del sector como The Foreign Spirits Producers Association y la Asociación de Importadores de Bebidas Alcohólicas de Shanghai.

promo@eleconomista.com.mx

CRÉDITO: 
Patricia Romo / El Economista

          

In Reversal, U.K. Will Ban Huawei Equipment From Its 5G Network   

Cache   

Updated at 4 p.m. ET Months after approving some limited involvement by the Chinese technology giant Huawei in constructing the U.K.'s next-generation wireless data network, British regulators reversed course Tuesday. Beginning in January, U.K. regulators will implement a ban on telecom operators buying Huawei equipment. Existing Huawei 5G equipment will need to be removed from the U.K.'s 5G network by 2027. The decision comes after relations between the U.K. and China declined sharply over China's actions in Hong Kong, and in the face of a potential rebellion by parliamentarians from the U.K.'s ruling Conservative party who are concerned about the security implications of Chinese involvement in the 5G rollout. But it also follows sustained U.S. pressure on the U.K. and other European countries to exclude Huawei from 5G development. The U.S. says Huawei's equipment can be used for espionage by Beijing, and it has threatened to withhold intelligence from its allies that continued to use

          

MH370: Sabar menunggu khabar   

Cache   

Hari ini sudah masuk 32 hari pesawat penerbangan Malaysia Airlines (MAS) MH370 hilang dan operasi mencari masih lagi diteruskan sehingga ke hari ini.

Kejadian yang sama sekali tidak disangka pada 8 Mac lalu sememangnya mengejutkan bukan sahaja negara malah seluruh dunia.



MH370

Oleh T.K. Letchumy Tamboo dan Syafique Shuib


Pesawat Penerbangan Malaysia (MAS) MH370 berlepas dari Kuala Lumpur ke Beijing pada pukul 12.41 pagi pada 8 Mac  lalu tetapi tidak pernah sampai ke destinasinya. Penerbangan itu membawa 239 penumpang dan anak kapal dari 15 negara termasuk Malaysia. Penerbangan itu terputus hubungan dengan Kawalan Trafik Udara Subang di luar Kuala Lumpur dan masih hilang sehingga hari ini. Usaha mencari dan menyelamat yang melibatkan pelbagai negara, yang merupakan terbesar di dalam sejarah, bermula untuk mencari pesawat itu.

SAR dan siasatan setakat ini

Setelah kehilangan pesawat itu di perairan Vietnam, Teluk Thailand dan Laut China Selatan menjadi fokus carian di mana ia dipercayai berada. Dalam tempoh beberapa hari, kawasan diperluaskan kepada Selat Melaka dan Laut Andaman.

Perdana Menteri Datuk Seri Najib Razak pada 15 Mac, berkata misi SAR memasuki fasa baru, iaitu di koridor utara dan selatan. Australia dan Indonesia diberi tanggungjawab untuk mengetuai kawasan masing-masing. Sebanyak 26 negara yang terlibat dalam pencarian.

Najib Tun Razak

Pada 24 Mac, Najib mengesahkan dua analisis yang dibuat secara bebas iaitu Cawangan Siasatan Kemalangan Udara United Kingdom (AAIB) dan Inmarsat, dan membuat kesimpulan "yang tidak meragukan" bahawa pesawat telah hilang di bahagian selatan Lautan Hindi dengan tiada yang terselamat. Kesimpulan ini membawa kepada semua kawasan carian dihentikan, kecuali bahagian selatan Lautan Hindi, atau koridor selatan.

Pemangku Menteri Pengangkutan Datuk Seri Hishammuddin Hussein berkata, semua kakitangan MAS, jurutera yang terlibat dalam mengendalikan pesawat MH370 sedang disiasat oleh pihak polis manakala Ketua Polis Negara Tan Sri Khalid Abu Bakar berkata kehilangan MH370 disiasat di bawah Seksyen 130(C) Kanun Keseksaan bagi kesalahan merampas, keganasan dan sabotaj, Akta Kesalahan Keselamatan (Langkah-Langkah Khas) 2012 dan Akta Kesalahan Penerbangan 2003.

Polis kemudiannya merampas simulator penerbangan dari rumah Kapten Zaharie Ahmad Shah, juruterbang  MH370.

Pada 26 Mac diumumkan imej satelit berjaya mengesan 122 objek. Ia dirakam pada 23 Mac dan menunjukkan objek sepanjang satu meter hingga 23 meter. Kemudian, FBI mengumumkan bahawa analisis data dari simulator penerbangan yang diambil dari rumah juruterbang pesawat MH370 sudah selesai.

Imej satelit Thailand pula mendedahkan 300 objek, yang mempunyai ukuran dua hingga 15 meter, terapung di selatan Lautan Hindi, pada 27 Mac.

Satelit Thailand

Pada 30 Mac, Pihak Berkuasa Keselamatan Maritim Australia (AMSA) berkata beberapa objek yang  diambil oleh HMAS Success dan Haixun 01 pada hari Sabtu telah diperiksa dan dipercayai tidak berkaitan dengan MH370.

Perdana Menteri Australia, Tony Abbott kemudiannya menyokong pandangan Najib bahawa laluan pesawat MH370 itu berakhir di selatan Lautan Hindi. Kementerian Pengangkutan juga mengeluarkan transkrip penuh komunikasi di antara pesawat MH370 dan Kawalan Trafik Udara Kuala Lumpur, yang tidak menunjukkan apa-apa yang luar biasa. "Good night Malaysian three seven zero" adalah perbualan terakhir dalam transkrip di antara pengawal trafik udara (ATC) dan kokpit.

Pada 5 dan 6 April, pengesan kotak hitam digunakan oleh kapal peronda China Haixun 01 mengesan dua denyutan pendek di selatan perairan Lautan Hindi. Satu lagi denyutan dikesan di selatan Lautan Hindi oleh Kapal Pertahanan Australia Ocean Shield kira-kira 300 batu nautika dari isyarat denyutan yang dikesan oleh Haixun 01.

Pada 7 April, kapal pertahanan Ocean Shield sekali lagi mengesan dua isyarat yang konsisten dengan yang dipancarkan oleh kotak hitam pesawat.

Ketua Pusat Penyelarasan Agensi Bersama (JACC) Angus Houston berkata isyarat "pinger" yang pertama dikesan selama dua jam 20 minit, manakala yang kedua ini dikesan selama 13 minit.

SAR di Perth

Apa yang kita tidak tahu

Lokasi sebenar
Fokus carian telah berubah berkali-kali sejak kawalan trafik udara terputus hubungan dengan pesawat Boeing 777 itu di antara Malaysia dan Vietnam. Ia bermula di Laut China Selatan, dan beralih ke arah Selat Melaka di sebelah barat. Kemudian kapal terbang dikesan isyaratnya setiap jam oleh sebuah satelit milik Inmarsat, sebuah syarikat British, selepas transponder pesawat dan semua sistem komunikasi telah ditutup dan menyebabkan Najib untuk mengatakan bahawa penerbangan berakhir di koridor selatan.

Kotak hitam
Kita tidak akan mengetahui apa-apa jawapan sehingga kotak hitam ditemui. Ia penting bagi melakukan siasatan lanjut kelak. 

Tiada bukti fizikal seperti mayat dan bangkai pesawat
Sejak beberapa bulan lepas, terdapat pelbagai “objek” yang dikesan satelit, terutama sekali dari satelit Australia, China dan Perancis. Walau bagaimanapun, beberapa "objek" itu didapati tidak mempunyai apa-apa kaitan dengan penerbangan yang hilang.

Teori konspirasi

Teori konspirasi

Sejak hari pertama kehilangan pesawat M370, pelbagai teori konspirasi timbul. Berikut adalah beberapa teori konspirasi:

Pesawat itu dirampas
Insiden itu disamakan dengan kejadian 9/11 dan pakar penerbangan percaya bahawa pesawat berkenaan mungkin telah dirampas walaupun tidak semestinya untuk tebusan atau tuntutan lain.

Rampasan melalui telefon bimbit
Kononnya telefon bimbit digunakan untuk mengodam sistem pesawat dan "menukar  kelajuan, ketinggian dan arah dengan menghantar isyarat radio kepada sistem pengurusan penerbangan. Ia kemudiannya boleh mendarat atau membuat pesawat terhempas dengan kawalan jauh."

Diego Garcia
Ada yang berkata bahawa MH370 telah dirampas oleh Amerika Syarikat dan kemudian diterbangkan ke pangkalan tentera Amerika Syarikat di Diego Garcia atau pesawat itu terus mendarat di pangkalan itu secara sendirinya. Teori terakhir dibangkitkan pada taklimat harian White House pada 18 Mac , Setiausaha Akhbar Jay Carney menjawab, "Itu tidak mungkin.”

Keganasan
Tiadanya panggilan kecemasan daripada juruterbang menunjukkan sama ada pesawat tersebut mengalami penyahmampatan letupan atau dimusnahkan oleh bahan letupan membawa kepada teori ini. Berdasarkan laporan, Malaysia juga amat terdedah terhadap ancaman aktiviti pengganas dan dijadikan sebagai negara transit dan perancangan bagi pengganas.

Letupan di atas kapal
Ada laporan berkata bahawa tekanan dalam kabin secara tiba-tiba boleh menyebabkan penyahmampatan letupan.

Masalah mekanikal
Pakar berkata pesawat yang berpatah balik kebiasaannya disebabkan terdapat kerosakan pada pesawat. Namun tiada panggilan kecemasan dilakukan oleh juruterbang.

Pesawat terhenti secara tiba-tiba
Sesetengah pakar mengaitkan beberapa persamaan di antara kejadian MH370 dan kehilangan Penerbangan Air France 447.

Kesilapan juruterbang
Juruterbang mungkin tidak sedar kapal terbang telah tersasar.

Pesawat ‘berhantu’
Beberapa teori konspirasi mencadangkan bahawa pesawat itu bertukar menjadi kapal terbang ‘hantu’ selepas setiap penumpang kapal terbang, termasuk juruterbang,  tidak sedarkan diri akibat tekanan kabin. Pada tahun 2005, penerbangan 522 Boeing 737 milik Helios Airways terhempas di Greece kerana juruterbang mati akibat hipoksia dan telah tersalah anggap tentang isyarat dan lampu amaran tekanan dan kepada isyarat keselamatan yang lain. Kru penerbangan yang mempunyai latihan juruterbang dan mampu untuk kekal sedar, cuba tetapi tidak berjaya untuk mengawal kapal terbang sebelum pengsan. Pesawat itu berada di udara selama dua jam sebelum kehabisan minyak dan terhempas.


          

King James Comes to Liverpool   

Cache   

LeBron james is going global by going to Boston.  LRMR Marketing, his and Maverick Carter's marketing company is forming a partnership with Fenway Sports Management, a subsidiary of Fenway Sports Group, the holding company formed by John Henry and Tom Werner that owns the Boston Red Sox, the regional cable television channel NESN, 50% of Fenway Roush Racing, a NASCAR racing team and the iconic English Premier League club Liverpool FC.

The Partnership will be the exclusive means through which LeBron conducts his marketing and endorsement activities worldwide.  In a statement announcing the partnership, Maverick Carter had this to say about his and LeBron's rationale for entering the agreement:

"Tom and John have created an innovative company that owns some of the greatest clubs and biggest brands in all of sports," said Maverick Carter, CEO of LRMR.  "Like LRMR, it is a fast-growing organization with incredible energy and passion for what they're doing. This partnership will allow us to dramatically expand our reach and opportunities, not only in the U.S. but in markets around the world." 


In addition to the marketing and endorsement arrangements, LeBron  and Carter will acquire a ten percent in Liverpool.  Expect to see some interesting global marketing promotions involving James and Liverpool together.  Undoubtedly, a major focus of the partnershipi will be China.  LeBron has been very active there leading up to and following the Beijing Olympics and I'm confident that Henry and Werner would love to see Liverpool colors all over the country.  After all, Liverpool's jerseys are red.  It is one area 

          

Copying from and competing with China   

Cache   

Dani Rodrik has a very good piece on the Chinese industrial policy. He makes a simple point. 

Chinese government pursued an aggressive industrial policy that focused on its interests. Far too often, its practices conflicted with the standard global conventions and tilted the playing field to favour its companies. It ended up hurting competitors. But instead of pursuing policies that responded to their interests, both in terms of appropriate industrial policy and actions to combat Chinese practices against a level playing field, the competitors have allowed a free pass for China and are now blaming China. The time has now come for others to both copy and take on China, and protect their own interests. 

For sure, there are limits to how much India or any other country can splurge with financial resources. But it is also not desirable to do so. Instead there are other levers of policy. On the WTO, several years back, India should have, for example, aggressively pursued this.

Further, the Chinese have pursued non-reciprocal trade policies, state-supported industrial espionage, and arm-twisted foreign companies into technology sharing partnerships. Political leaders and bureaucrats across the world, especially in developed countries, have been complicit in this. In fact, whole countries (see Italy here) and industries have been sold out in private deals which have come at the cost of national interests.

But the most important and essential response would be for India to aggressively pursue its version of industrial policy. There are several things to copy from China. Take this example of the Chinese industrial policy on medical supplies. Post pandemic, we have come to realise that this industrial policy bet has helped China reap strategic benefits. 

In fact, one could safely argue that food and healthcare are two areas where a large country like India should unabashedly seek reasonable self-sufficiency by whatever means possible. Given the dominance of China in several sectors and its now clear willingness to abuse its dominance, it is critical for other countries to diversify away from China. 

A NYT article by Keith Bradsher argues that China's industrial policy has helped the country position itself as the overwhelming dominant global supplier of medical equipment and gears. The scale is staggering,
Before the pandemic, China already exported more respirators, surgical masks, medical goggles and protective garments than the rest of the world combined, the Peterson Institute for International Economics estimated. Beijing’s coronavirus response has only added to that dominance. It increased mask production nearly 12-fold in February alone. It can now make 150 tons per day of the specialized fabric used for masks, said Bob McIlvaine, who runs a namesake research and consulting firm in Northfield, Ill. That is five times what China could make before the outbreak, and 15 times the output of U.S. companies even after they ramped up production this spring... Ma Zhaoxu, vice minister of foreign affairs, said that from March through May, China exported 70.6 billion masks. The entire world produced about 20 billion all of last year, with China accounting for half.
And it has emerged from very active industrial policy,
Factory owners get cheap land, courtesy of the Chinese government. Loans and subsidies are plentiful. Chinese hospitals are often told to buy locally, giving China’s suppliers a vast and captive market... For years, China’s leaders have worried that the country depended too much on foreign sources for everything from medical supplies to microchips to airliners. It has used subsidies, economic targets and other government inducements to emerge as a powerhouse in those important industries. When Chinese leaders grew concerned about pollution and dependence on foreign oil, for example, they helped local makers of solar panels, wind turbines and high-speed rail equipment clobber the competition. They have taken similar steps to dominate industries of the future, like the next generation of wireless data transmission, known as 5G... American companies have been reluctant to make big investments in fabric manufacturing because they worry that mask demand will be temporary...
Chinese makers of medical gear enjoyed generous government subsidies. Shenzhen Mindray, a maker of ventilators and other intensive care equipment, received up to $16.6 million a year over the past three years, according to company documents. Winner Medical, a mask manufacturer, received $3 million to $4 million a year. Guangzhou Improve, a producer of masks and test kits, received $2.5 million to $5 million a year... Hospitals began to buy locally. Three years ago, the central government required purchasers to buy from domestic producers that could meet requirements. Local governments followed. Sichuan Province, for example, cut in half the number of categories for which medical equipment and supplies could be imported. Only the top hospitals could import anything, the provincial government said, while lower-ranked hospitals had to buy everything in China. At least three other large, populous provinces — Liaoning, Hubei and Shandong — made similar announcements.
Merely giving subsidies and providing favourable competitive environment is not enough. Quality and productivity are equally important. As Joe Studwell has shown in the context of South East Asian economies, without export competition, such support only ends up being captured by powerful local elites. 

The subsidies ensured that Chinese firms got the runway to refine their technologies and business models and deliver their products at the lowest cost. The production cost and scale have marginalised foreign competitors in even their own domestic markets. 

Industrial policy also requires cultivating manufacturing culture and creating ecosystem. The latter is a point highlighted here. The Times writes,
Rakesh Tammabattula, an entrepreneur in the Los Angeles suburbs, shifted his business making nutrition supplements and moisturizer to the production of medical masks and hand sanitizer in response to the epidemic. To do that, he needed a machine that could compress and cut fabric to make masks. He discovered that the machines were made only in China. He had to charter a jet to fly the huge device — 36 feet long, six feet high and five feet wide — from southern China to Los Angeles. “It’s not that we can’t make this,” said Mr. Tammabattula, the chief executive of QYK Brands. “It’s just that we haven’t focused on it.”... In Los Angeles, Mr. Tammabattula has found that even producing hand sanitizer is hard. He has been unable to find any company in the United States that still makes plastic bottles with pump handles. He imports them, on expensive chartered aircraft, from China. Mr. Tammabattula has applied for a federal loan for small businesses trying to produce medical supplies, but the paperwork has proved extensive, daunting and slow, he said.
The government has a crucial co-ordinating role to play in fostering the growth of manufacturing. Take the examples of places like Morbi (HT: Ananth) or Meerut or Sonipat or Wagle. A recent newspaper report informs that Morbi in Gujarat, known for tiles and timepieces, is make a big push to become a major toy manufacturing hub by manufacturing for brands like Mattel, LEGO, and Hamleys. The town has over 300 SMEs manufacturing clocks, gift articles, and electronics items and employing over 35,000 workers. It makes over 90% of the country's clocks. With their regular business down, the firms in Morbi are exploring other areas and see an opportunity in the toys sector. In particular, they want to replace Chinese suppliers of small electronic equipment to Indian manufacturers of consumer appliances, gift items, and toys. 

The level of co-ordination required for Morbi to succeed is significant. Market forces and industry associations cannot do it on their own. Governments will have to support identification and mobilisation of prospective suppliers, and co-ordinate local manufacturers to focus on local suppliers. Both sides will have to feel confident enough that the other side will keep their part of the contract.  The new suppliers will have to get the confidence of reasonably assured market demand to make the investments for the business pivot. Similarly, the manufacturers will have to get the confidence that the supply will be of good quality and at a competitive enough price.

Public policy can facilitate the matching by channeling industrial policy incentives to bridge the market confidence deficit on both sides. Besides, it will have to offer some form of level playing field protection against cheap Chinese imports. Instead of picking winners within the sector itself, industrial policy should be confined to facilitating the catalysis of good quality and cost-competitive local manufacturing of small electronic equipment.

It requires co-ordination across central government Ministries as well as between central and state governments, besides among private sector participants, to synchronise industrial policy. It requires stable policies and consistency in their implementation. It also requires patient and persistent effort over a few years involving the nuts and bolts of implementation to develop the eco-system and catalyse the market. 

          

Weekend reading links   

Cache   

1. MS Sriram has a very disturbing picture of India's banking sector. He argues that policy makers should allow banks to focus on clearing the NPAs and getting more loans out, rather than hobbling them with reforms.

Andy Mukherjee points to the stress facing Indian banks. It's acute.
The sheer scale of numbers here is staggering and means that something has to give. And it may have to go much beyond even recapitalisations.

More importantly, given the state of affairs, banks will be loath to open up their credit taps, and that means growth will remain constrained.

2. NYT has an investigation of Global Anti-Trust Institute (GAI), part of the Antonin Scalia Law School at George Mason University. The Institute is bankrolled by the likes of Amazon, Google and Qualcomm and organises conferences and workshops for regulators from across the world and within the US, where they advocate that the best way to foster competition is to maintain a hands-off approach to anti-trust law. Besides, the institute's leaders have longstanding tech company ties to help them fend off anti-trust action.

The article chronicles how the Institute has worked to establish the hegemony of a particular approach to anti-trust across the world. It also describes how the GAI has infiltrated and captured the judges at the Brazilian anti-trust regulator, the Administrative Council for Economic Defense (CADE) by hosting its judges in swanky conferences with all expenses paid business class trips.

As the India pursues similar actions against tech companies, it is important to safeguard against such attempts to capture important regulators. The systematic nature of capture of CADE is disturbing. 

3. Goldman Sachs and the Malaysian government agreed on a settlement on the 1MDB scandal, with the former paying $3.9 bn. Malaysian prosecutors had charged several Goldman units for their role in helping raise billions of dollars for the sovereign wealth fund, which was later found to have been used as a personal piggy bank, involving the then Prime Minister, Najib Razak. The settlement closes all the criminal charges against Goldman and its executives.

Goldman executives are accused of conspiring to circumvent its internal controls to bribe Malaysian officials and secure the lucrative bond work. But the settlement absolves Goldman executives, including its current Chief Executive, of culpability in Malaysia of activities which include criminal conduct. However, it still faces action brought by investigators and regulators in the US, though that too is likely to end up in the form of a similar settlement with large fines.

The settlement decision has naturally raised hackles,
Goldman will fork out $2.5bn, instead of the $7.5bn the finance minster had originally demanded, and the Malaysian government agreed to drop criminal charges against the bank and cease legal proceedings against 17 current and former Goldman directors... In the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, Goldman was pilloried for its sales of mortgage-backed securities and derivatives. But, unlike virtually all of its competitors, neither Goldman’s bank holding company nor its subsidiaries ever pleaded guilty to criminal charges. It is now trying to emerge from the 1MDB scandal with that record intact. With Malaysia out of the way, the last big hurdle is the US Department of Justice... “If the DoJ does less, it will once again show that Wall Street’s biggest, wealthiest, most politically connected banks are still too big to jail, no matter how many crimes they commit, how many laws they break, how many victims there are or how much damage they inflict,” said Dennis Kelleher, president of Better Markets.
4. Interesting research paper which shows that industries with less business concentration is more innovative,
Using New Product Announcements as a measure of innovation, we find that industries dominated by small firms prove consistently and significantly more innovative than industries where large firms dominate. Taking account of industries’ structural and dynamic levels of competition, we find that high existing and increasing levels of new firms entering an industry, exercising what Schumpeter called the ‘entrepreneurial function’, actually decrease industry innovativeness. We conclude that the contribution of small firms in terms of industry innovativeness is different from that of large as well as new firms.
5. Auto manufacturers in India have been lobbying the government to allow import of components from China.
Last year, auto components worth around $17 billion were imported into In­dia, of which 26 per cent, or $4.5-billion-worth parts, ca­me from China. The balance came from South Korea (13 per cent), Germany (12), Japan (9), USA (4), Thailand (6), Singapore (5) and Italy (3), according to data from the Auto Component Ma­nufacturers’ Association of India (ACMA). The Indian auto components sector is worth about $57 billion. The industry estimates nearly 2 per cent of the components in a passenger car are from China and without those parts — from engine, transmission, suspension, braking, cooling and steering systems to electronic and electrical items — cars will not be rolled out from the manufacturing lines as the automotive value chain is a highly complex, integrated and interdependent one.

Clearly the industry is dependent on China. But also, to put this in perspective, the dependence by value is $4.2 bn in the (formal) $118 bn automobile industry, or 3.6%. It would be much lower when the entire industry is taken into account. Besides, a significant proportion of this would continue to get sourced from China, through various kinds of intermediation, even with a ban from the Indian government. The actual impact felt finally will be limited. Given the numbers above, the actual price increases has to be marginal and the consumers will have to bear with that.

If it is a collective/universal problem of the industry, then it should pass through the higher prices. The government should support it with equivalent tariffs to protect against import competition. The industry should go on the over-drive to diversify away their reliance on China, including encouraging local manufacturing. Needless to say, the government's role in this is important.

If it is a problem faced by a handful of the companies, with their excessive dependence on China, then I guess they are paying the price for poor risk management. The government could provide them some preferential treatment for a period of time to diversify away their dependence.

Without in any way underplaying the importance of sourcing of critical components in the manufacturing, given the nature of the situation here and stakes involved, I am inclined to think that this is an issue which, when all is said and done, the industry can and should manage. Or am I missing something entirely?

6. Nothing unusual about Maharashtra reporting an 18.2% increase in 10th class pass percentage to a record 95.3%. And that too in times of Covid 19. It begs the question about why have such examinations? Given universal pass percentages above 90%, matriculation examinations across Indian states must be the costliest way to screen out 5-10% of students!

7. Jamie Metzl (HT: Ananth) who served in the Clinton administration writes about the lack of serious attempts to hold China accountable for the outbreak of the pandemic. He argues that it is more likely that the virus escaped the high safety Wuhan Institute of Virology, where it was being researched.

8. Business Standard discusses the floundering PMFBY crop insurance program.

9. Vijay Gokhale has a very good profile of Xi Jinping,
It is worth recalling that he was chosen as general secretary in November 2012, because the party feared that Bo Xilai, another Red Child of the Revolution, displayed dangerous traits of megalomania and Maoism. Xi had given no hint of such traits. Bo Xilai was handsome, flamboyant and media-friendly; Xi was modest in both dress and demeanour and, in a word, underwhelming. Such comparison is important to comprehend how he rose without being viewed as a “threat”. Those who encountered him before 2012 tended to judge him only by his appearance or outward demeanour. Perhaps for this reason, people misjudge him still.
10. Anirudh Burman cautions that the draft proposal by the Government of India's Committee on Non-personal Data Governance Framework runs the risk of India creating a license-permit raj in data economy,
The draft report proposes an expansive regulatory regime that would mandate data-sharing by anyone collecting data above a certain threshold, and require registration with another new data regulatory body for anyone collecting or deriving benefits from non-personal data. Also, it proposes state “beneficial ownership” of certain categories of non-personal data. For this, the report makes a specious argument — that useful data created by a business should no longer be considered property owned by it: “The term ‘ownership’ holds full meaning only in terms of physical assets.” It says that the government should be the beneficial owner of what it calls “community non-personal data”, which is still data collected and generated by the private sector. Not only does this upend India’s existing regime for intellectual property, it also goes contrary to global property rights protections India has signed up to.
11. Late on the €750 bn EU pandemic stimulus, with €390 bn in grants and €360 bn in concessional loans. As Emmanuel Macron described, at a time when political consensus on anything is proving difficult anywhere, for 27 countries to agree on some thing which involved decisive breaks from the past is impressive. NYT writes,
The deal was notable for its firsts: European countries will raise large sums by selling bonds collectively, rather than individually; and much of that money will be handed out to member nations hit hardest by the pandemic as grants that do not have to be repaid, and not as loans that would swell their national debts.
And this from Bloomberg,
The recovery package would be financed by joint EU debt issuance, marking a major step toward further economic integration in the bloc. The money will need to be repaid by the end of 2058 and will come out of the EU’s budget, meaning countries that contribute more, like Germany, will be shouldering more of the financial burden. In order to defray the cost of the program, the bloc will increase the amount of revenue it can collect. A new tax on non-recycled plastic waste will be introduced next year, and the European Commission is preparing proposals on a digital tax and a carbon border adjustment mechanism that would take effect in 2023.
The deal involved overcoming stiff resistance from the Frugal Four (Austria, Netherlands, Sweden and Denmark) and within Germany itself. The deal is another feather in the cap of Angela Merkel, as Germany held the rotating Presidency of the EU and worked with Mr Macron to pull this through.

          

Weekend reading links   

Cache   

1. Indian students are the biggest consumers of foreign higher education,
According to Unesco, in 2017 there were 5.3 million internationally mobile students. China and India were the top two countries of their origin, and the US, Australia, and the UK the top destinations. In 2019, the number of Indians studying in the US crossed 202,014, or 18 per cent of all international students there. In Australia, 15 per cent of all international students were Indians. They were outnumbered only by the Chinese. In the UK (in 2018) Indians, at 19,750, were again the second-largest nationality among international students. In Canada, the largest number of international students on campuses was that of Indians, who accounted for 34 per cent of the total 642,000.


A survey by QS reveals that a majority of Indians prefer to study STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects abroad, with 41 per cent of them choosing business & management, and 33 per cent engineering and technology. This choice is directly linked to employability abroad. It is easier to get jobs and work permits through these disciplines than with non-STEM subjects. In the US alone, 90 per cent of H-1B visa requests in 2011 were for jobs that required high-level STEM knowledge... Under the Reserve Bank of India’s Liberalised Remittance Scheme (LRS) education remittances (money going abroad for tuition fees only) were increasing in the past. In 2018-2019, education remittances were 25.9 per cent of the all outward remittances, (worth $13.8 billion). This increased to 26.9 per cent of the total (worth $17.4 billion) from April 2019 to February 2020.
2. Ashok Gulati argues in favour of focusing policy on reducing edible out imports,
On the agri-imports front, the biggest item is edible oils — worth about $10 billion (more than 15 mt). This is where there is a need to create “aatma nirbharta”, not by levying high import duties, but by creating a competitive advantage through augmenting productivity and increasing the recovery ratio of oil from oilseeds and in case of palm oil, from fresh fruit bunches. While mustard, sunflower, groundnuts, and cottonseed have a potential to increase oil output to some extent, the maximum potential lies in oil palm. This is the only plant that can give about four tonnes of oil on a per hectare basis. India has about 2 million hectares that are suitable for oil palm cultivation — this can yield 8 mt of palm oil. But it needs a long term vision and strategy. If the Modi government wants “aatma nirbharta” in agriculture, oil palm is a crop to work on.
The entire article is informative.

3. The World Bank's misguided Pandemic Bonds appears to have gotten its deserved burial

4. Another example of implementation failure, in the distribution of foodgrains to returning migrants,
Reports suggest that the government’s ambitious scheme of distributing free foodgrain to migrant workers during the lockdown period has not been effective. According to data released by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, 11 states have distributed less than one per cent of the allocated quantities during the months of May and June. States and Union Territories have lifted 80 per cent of the free foodgrains (80 lakh metric tonnes) apportioned to them to distribute to an estimated 8 crore migrant workers over two months. However, according to the government's own data, only 13 per cent of this was distributed and benefitted only 2.25 per cent of the migrant workers.
5. The difficult of disengaging from China, this about the reliance of public sector units on Chinese contractors.

C Rajamohan has a very nice summary of the changing contours of Chinese foreign policy under Xi Jinping. He argues that the aggressive pursuit of its hegemony in Asia is likely to stoke nationalistic forces in its neighbours.

Shyam Saran on the consensus on bilateral relationship which has been irretrievably broken by the recent Chinese actions,
What were the key elements of this consensus. One, that India was not a threat to China and China was not a threat to India. Two, that there was enough room in Asia and the world for both India and China to grow. Three, India was an economic opportunity for China and China for India. And, four, that India-China relations had acquired a strategic and global dimension, thus enhancing the importance of strong and cooperative relations between them. Precisely for this reason, the two sides wished to seek a political resolution to their boundary issue so that they could work together on a series of global issues where they had convergent interest.
Good article by Jabin Jacob on the insecurities of the Chinese Communist Party which has in recent times opened up numerous fronts of battle for the Chinese regime.

Meanwhile the progress on disengagement remains elusive with the Chinese refusing to vacate the land encroached by them. Brahma Chellaney calls for active engagement at the border instead of the proposed disengagement since it would only involve India effectively vacating its own territory. 

6. A good snapshot of public views about China and US among populations of major countries,
A good summary of the multi-front battles that China has opened up in recent times as Xi Jinping pursues "wolf warrior" diplomacy.

7. Ground Zero for water wars, atleast in Africa, is the Grand Renaissance Dam built by Ethiopia on Blue Nile to generate 6000 MW of power, double the country's current installed capacity. The dam would have a storage capacity which is more than the volume of the entire Blue Nile river. Now that the construction is completed, Ethiopia is threatening to go ahead and fill the dam even as the possible tri-partite water sharing agreement with Egypt and Sudan has become entangled in protracted disagreements.

See also this report. 

8. The balance sheet of the power distribution sector reform program UDAY looks disappointing.
And signatures of success are all weak,
For example, at the aggregate level, financial losses of state-owned discoms rose by about 81 per cent in FY19. Further, the gap between the average cost of power purchased and supplied went up instead of improving. The aggregate technical and commercial losses have also not narrowed to the extent desired. Operational inefficiencies continue to mar discom finances and state government loans to discoms have more than doubled over the last five years.
The impact of accumulating power sector losses on state government liabilities is a matter of big concern,
The financial position of discoms has implications for state government finances. A new research paper by the Reserve Bank of India underlines the rising trend of off-budget borrowings by state governments. The majority of guarantees given by state governments are for borrowings in the power sector. On an average, power utilities account for over 60 per cent of total outstanding guarantees given by the states. In some states such as Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan, it is worth over 80 per cent of the total guarantees. The paper notes that if these guarantees are invoked, it would pose a potential risk to debt sustainability. However, at some point, state governments will have to foot the bill and take the liability on their books because discoms — given their financial position— would not be able to service the debt.
Into this pile of woes comes news that rating agencies have downgraded Power Finance Corporation to junk status, thereby impacting the cost of capital of one of the largest financiers to the distressed discoms.

This is not surprising since the strategy was never likely to work. The sector needs choices which demand trade-offs. I had outlined a minimal and essential agenda here.

10. As India pursues import substitution in the post-Covid future, ventilators are a good example of what is possible in such areas. With a determined push and strategic purchase commitment by the government, the worry of a deficit of ventilators has in three months turned into one of supply gluts.
But at the same time, ventilator capacity went up from about 300 per month from eight manufacturers to over 30,000 from 16 manufacturers, according to Rajiv Nath, Forum Coordinator of the Association of Indian Medical Device Industry (AiMeD)... Delhi-based AgVa Healthcare tied up with Maruti Suzuki India in March to ramp up production. The company’s co-founder Prof Diwakar Vaish says they have delivered one-third of their order of 10,000 ventilators. “We were initially given a moving target by HLL since specifications were subsequently changed. But we have managed to push production from 50-100 ventilators a month to almost 5,000. This has brought down the cost of ventilators for use in India to one-fifth of what was being paid earlier for imported machines,” he says.
The gluts have been exacerbated by the limited use of ventilators among Covid patients - just 3 per thousand having to use ventilators.

The two features of this transformation of the production capacity was strategic partnerships by manufacturers with the likes of public sector units and advance market commitment by the government.

Given the excess availability, this is perhaps an opportunity for India to allow exports and earn some goodwill.

11. From John Mauldin, observations on the unexplainable rise and rise of equity markets,
The Dow Industrials just closed out their best quarter since 1987... The S&P 500 rose 40% from its March 23 low—its strongest 100-day rally since 1933... But the latest AAII sentiment survey says only 22.2% of investors are bullish for stocks over the next six months. That’s a nine-month low and the third straight week of sub-25% readings... Tesla just bypassed Toyota to become the world’s most valuable car company. This after years of quarterly losses. But shares are up more than 5,500% over the past decade. Goes to show that, like “Hamilton,” investors love a good success story.
12. Fascinating account of how thieves organise their activities in Sierra Leone,
Like many clubs, it is selective. Only the right sort of person may join. It has a spokesman, a financial secretary and an interim chairman. But in other ways the Black Street Boys is rather different from, say, a club in Pall Mall or Augusta, Georgia. Members sport matching tattoos of the harp symbol used on bottles of Guinness. And instead of spending their days playing bridge or golf, the Black Street Boys talk about breaking into cars, picking pockets or robbing people at knifepoint. Before admission, “we’ll interview you, ask where you come from, what your motivation is and why you decided to come here and learn the ways of the streets,” says its interim chairman... There are hundreds of informal associations like these across the country. The youngsters who sell pirated cds in downtown Freetown answer to a chairman and vice-chairman, as do the beggars who loiter outside a hilltop supermarket in the west of the city. Neighbours band together and form committees to look out for one another. The chairmen mediate squabbles, punish thieves and drum up cash when members are sick. Some are corrupted by power and end up squeezing extra, undue payments from members. Such groups exist because the state is a shambles. According to a report last year by Transparency International, a Berlin-based watchdog, more than half of Sierra Leoneans paid bribes for public services. When officials are predatory, people turn to their communities for protection.
13. The leaders of most successful grand projects in history get more credit than they deserve. Post-facto assessments confer excessive praise and attribution. Sample this about Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal which led US out of the Depression, 
FDR according to his biographer Robert Dallek, had no grand plan for rescuing America, only an “uncanny inexplicable feel for what might work and what would stimulate public approval”. Richard Hofstadter, a historian, describes an “era of fumbling and muddling through”.
14. Amidst all talk of easing business environment and attracting investors, Haryana reserves employment to locals,
The Haryana State Employment of Local Candidates Ordinance, 2020, is to provide a whopping 75 per cent reservation for locals in new jobs within the state in private concerns, subject to certain riders. These include that the new jobs should have a salary of under Rs 50,000; and that the company itself should have more than 10 people.
Apart from the inefficiencies and balkanisation of the labour market, it imposes additional compliances and its associated problems for businesses.

15. Snapshot of the frenetic front-loaded state government borrowings
16. In a summary of the all the global economic and social trends leading up to the Covid 19, Martin Wolf points to three determinants of citizenship in today's world,
In today’s world, citizenship needs to have three aspects: loyalty to democratic political and legal institutions and the values of open debate and mutual tolerance that underpin them; concern for the ability of all fellow citizens to lead a fulfilled life; and the wish to create an economy that allows the citizens and their institutions to flourish.
None of the leadership of the major businesses and financial market institutions in the US would meet the second and third aspects.

17. A fascinating FT investigation of the 'Ndrangheta mafia in the Calabria region of Italy. 
’Ndrangheta, a Mafia that remains little-known outside Italy but which has grown into one of the most dangerous, internationally active and financially sophisticated criminal enterprises in the western world. Over the past two decades, the leading families of the ’Ndrangheta — pronounced “en-dran-ghet-ah” — have expanded operations far outside their small home region. Today they control a large part of cocaine importation into Europe, as well as arms smuggling, extortion and cross-border money laundering. Several hundred autonomous clans have been transformed into one of Italy’s most successful businesses, with some studies estimating their combined annual turnover to be as high as €44bn — believed by law-enforcement agencies to be more than all the Mexican drug ­cartels combined.
This financialisation of Mafia activities is stunning,
Regular health service companies working for Italian hospitals are owed money by hospitals. Instead of waiting to be paid, they sell on the invoices at a discount. This helps them get cash upfront, but they lose a bit on what they are owed due to the discount. The buyers of these invoices package them up into a big pool of invoices inside a special purpose vehicle, SPV, and then sell bonds to investors backed by the invoices. The investors get paid interest on the bonds as the invoices are gradually paid off by the Italian health authorities. Intermediaries work to ensure the bills are paid, and the money flows from the health authority to the investor.
18. Shekhar Gupta points to the sociology of UP mafia. In a political system where government pack the system with people belonging to its caste coalition, the castes left out end up relying on the mafia. When the state had brahmin Chief Ministers, the mafia leaders belonged to the backward castes. In the recent decades as political power shifted, the mafia leaders were the upper castes. 
If a Yadav father or son is in power, it means the Yadavs have the power. That is only about 9 per cent of the population. They make an alliance with Muslims, and often with Thakurs. So, they are all accommodated in the legitimate power tent. All governance, distribution of welfare, including sinking of tube wells and hand pumps, appointment of the most important officers. The castes that feel left out then lean on their mafia leaders. This results in a counter-intuitive situation where the more active mafias usually consist of castes that are not in power. In the past, until the 1980s, when upper castes were usually chief ministers, crime syndicates and dacoit gangs were backward castes... Of course, once power in the state shifted to the lower and middle castes, including the Yadavs, upper castes moved to organised crime too. Brahmin and Thakur gangs came up now, while western UP became a lawless zone in its own right. The mafia the state is now dealing with in Kanpur is exclusively Brahmin.
19. From Calculated Risk via John Mauldin this unemployment graphic provides a perspective on the economic damage of Covid 19 in the US.

The larger point in the article about a permanent shock to the labour market is very compelling and likely. The Economist had talked about the 90 percent economy, where only 90% of the economic activity resumes after Covid 19. 

          

Weekend reading links   

Cache   

1. US Attorney General William Barr has a speech which highlights how systematic abuse by Chinese authorities and business greed of American companies contributed to China's economic rise. He points to the abusive economic practices of the Chinese Communist Party,
To tilt the playing field to its advantage, China’s communist government has perfected a wide array of predatory and often unlawful tactics: currency manipulation, tariffs, quotas, state-led strategic investment and acquisitions, theft and forced transfer of intellectual property, state subsidies, dumping, cyberattacks, and espionage. About 80% of all federal economic espionage prosecutions have alleged conduct that would benefit the Chinese state, and about 60% of all trade secret theft cases have had a nexus to China.
He draws attention to the consistent Chinese playbook across industries,
To achieve dominance in pharmaceuticals, China’s rulers went to the same playbook they used to gut other American industries. In 2008, the PRC designated pharmaceutical production as a “high-value-added-industry” and boosted Chinese companies with subsidies and export tax rebates. Meanwhile, the PRC has systematically preyed on American companies. American firms face well-known obstacles in China’s health market, including drug approval delays, unfair pricing limitations, IP theft, and counterfeiting. Chinese nationals working as employees at pharma companies have been caught stealing trade secrets both in America and in China. And the CCP has long engaged in cyber-espionage and hacking of U.S. academic medical centers and healthcare companies... By imposing a quota on American films, the CCP pressures Hollywood studios to form joint ventures with Chinese companies, who then gain access to U.S. technology and know-how.
And how American companies compromised on US national interests,
China’s communist leaders lured American business with the promise of market access, and then, having profited from American investment and know-how, turned increasingly hostile. The PRC used tariffs and quotas to pressure American companies to give up their technology and form joint ventures with Chinese companies. Regulators then discriminated against American firms, using tactics like holding up permits. Yet few companies, even Fortune 500 giants, have been willing to bring a formal trade complaint for fear of angering Beijing.
The speech links to this Newsweek article by Bill Powell from last year which describes how American companies help build up China's economic prowess. The article outlines how US corporate interests lobbied hard to make policy that channelled US investments to China and integrated the country into the world economy. In particular, the permanent normalisation of trade relations with China in 2000, opened the floodgates for US companies to build China-centric supply chains. This was followed up in 2001 with the US supported entry of China into the WTO.

Barr's speech was part of an escalation of public accusations of Chinese spying and theft of US intellectual property by a string of top US officials. One estimate of US intellectual property theft by China puts it in the range between $225 bn and $600 bn a year. It has culminated in the US directive for immediate closure of the Chinese consulate in Houston which has been accused of being the centre of Chinese corporate theft in the US. China predictably responded with ordering the closure of Chengdu consulate, which looks after Tibet. There have also been arrests of Chinese students and professionals in the US who have close links with the Peoples Liberation Army.

The present US administration has on several occasions spoken about the need for an alliance of democratic countries to fight the Chinese aggression. C Rajamohan argues in favour of India joining a US led coalition of democracies to forge partnerships in combating China. 

2. When all the expertise talking on Covid 19 is done with, it is most likely to emerge that the most effective strategy to combat the disease is the simple use of masks. Sample this remarkable factoid,
Researchers say the benefits of widespread mask use were recently seen in a Missouri hair salon, where two stylists directly served 139 clients in May before testing positive for Covid-19. According to a recent report published by the CDC, both wore either a double-layered cotton or surgical mask, and nearly all clients who were interviewed reported wearing masks the entire time. After contact tracing and two weeks of follow-up, no Covid-19 symptoms were identified among the 139 clients or their secondary contacts, the report found. Of the 67 who were willing to be tested, all were negative for Covid-19.
3. On the challenges faced by the solar sector in India. Interesting developments in India's power sector. During Covid 19, as the power demand declined, discoms were contractually obliged to keep purchasing power from renewable generators, as part of the must-run status in the contracts. The result,
Electricity procurement from coal-fired power in India’s energy mix fell from 75% in early March to 63% in May, while the contribution of clean energy sources—solar, wind and hydroelectric power—rose from 16% to a never-before-seen 28%, according to data from the national load despatch centre.
The article also points out that the sectoral boom is being kept alive by foreign investors, and their pool has been expanding in recent months. 

4. Yuvraj Malik has a good primer on Huawei and on the issues with keeping Huawei out of India. This on the company's large India footprint,
There are 560,000 mobile towers in India, according to the Department of Telecommunications (DoT), and two-thirds of these, according to experts tracking the space, run on Huawei equipment. Huawei has also been a massive supplier for more than a decade, to Airtel and Vodafone-Idea, which will lose their competitive advantage if the Chinese firm is barred, experts say... It has about 6,000 employees in the country, about 4,000 of them serving at its R&D facility in Bengaluru. The Bengaluru centre, opened in 2015, is Huawei's largest overseas research hub, people close to the company say. It also houses a business unit called Global Service Centre, which supports carrier network operations (support work) for Huawei’s customers in over 30 countries. India GSC is also the largest in the world for Huawei.
Any bank on Huawei in India will be a significant benefit to Reliance and cost Bharti and Vodafone. In the interests of the telecom sector in the country, it is therefore incumbent on the government, on strategic considerations, to support these companies transition out of Huawei. One way would be to discount their losses (or cost-differetial) due to shifting away from Huawei in the forthcoming 5G spectrum auctions. Howsoever messy a quantification of the cost differential, it is important that some such decision be taken to compensate the telecoms providers due to a decision which is surely a force majeure over which they had no control.

5. Latest, from January 2020, on cost and time overruns of public infrastructure projects worth over Rs 150 Cr each or more in India. The total cost overrun was Rs 4.02 trillion.
Of the 1,692 such projects, 401 projects reported cost overruns and 552 projects time escalation. "Total original cost of implementation of the 1,692 projects was Rs 20,75,212.70 crore and their anticipated completion cost is likely to be Rs 24,78,016.45 crore, which reflects overall cost overruns of Rs 4,02,803.75 crore (19.41 per cent of original cost)," the ministry's latest report for January 2020 said. The expenditure incurred on these projects till January 2020 is Rs 10,97,604.64 crore, which is 44.29 per cent of the anticipated cost of the projects... Out of 552 delayed projects, 168 have overall delay in the range of 1 to 12 months, 125 with delay in the range of 13 to 24 months, 145 projects reflect delay in the range of 25 to 60 months and 114 projects show delay of 61 months and above. The average time overrun in these 552 delayed projects is 39.71 months. The brief reasons for time overruns as reported by various project implementing agencies are delay in land acquisition, delay in obtaining forest/environment clearances and lack of infrastructure support and linkages. Besides, there are other reasons like delay in tie-up of project financing, delay in finalisation of detailed engineering, change in scope, delay in tendering, ordering and equipment supply, law and order problems, geological surprises, pre-commissioning teething troubles and contractual issues, among others, the report said.
6. Tamal Bandhyopadhyay raises concerns about a discussion paper by the RBI on banking sector governance. In light of the recent scandals and misgovernance in private sector banks, the paper appears to be an effort to fashion a new governance system for them. It proposes making the CEO virtually a titular head, with all powers being vested in sub-committees of Boards.
Going by the paper, a bank must have three lines of defence for risk management — the business line (including a robust finance and accounting function); a risk-management function and a compliance function independent from the first line of defence; and an internal audit and vigilance function, independent from the first and second lines of defence. No one can challenge the proposition but the devil is in the detail. How will it be executed? The chief risk officer, the head of internal audit, the chief compliance officer and the internal vigilance head will report directly to the respective board committees. The company secretary will report to the chairman and the head of human resources will report to the nomination and remuneration committee. Such committees will be responsible for the selection of the executives, approval of their budgets, performance appraisals and compensation. The CEO will neither be able to guide the senior team in operational matters nor decide on their appointment, compensation or removal. Yet, the CEO is responsible for the profit and loss of the bank!
On public sector bank governance, Debashis Basu points to the pervasive culture of suppressing information and dressing up of accounts. The article highlights the example of management of the non-performing assets and recovery rates from written off assets. An RTI application revealed that in the FY13-FY20 period, the SBI wrote off Rs 1.23 trillion but managed to recover just 7% or Rs 8969 Cr. However, the annual reports of the SBI appear to point to a number which may be much higher.

7. Instead of focusing on mergers and privatisation, TT Rammohan makes the case for recapitalisation of public sector banks in light of the likely Covid 19 impact of rise in NPAs. He also calls for measures to alleviate the decision paralysis concerns.

8. A final tally of Reliance investors
Andy Mukherjee has a very good article looking forward into Reliance's ambitions.

9. An argument for bringing the insurance sector under either SEBI or RBI. The point being IRDAI has been sorely deficient in its regulatory role and does not possess the expertise to do so.
... it worthwhile to consider bringing the insurance sector under either the market regulator Securities and Exchange Board of India or the Reserve Bank of India, with an Irdai playing a limited role as a self-regulatory organisation to manage insurance policy issues, agnostic of the financial health of the companies. There is a precedent, too. After trying for decades, the government has removed the National Housing Bank (NHB) from its role as the regulator of the housing finance companies. The government has correctly argued that the NHB has too few resources, financial or human, to dictate to lenders... No major economies have an independent insurance regulator. USA runs a hybrid with the National Association of Insurance Commissioners created by the state insurance departments. But the key call is taken by the Federal Reserve. China has a common regulator for banking and insurance, while the UK has the Prudential Regulatory Authority within the Bank of England. They are none the worse for it.
10. In another blow in the direction of protectionism, Democratic frontrunner Joe Biden puts forth an ambitious Buy American agenda,
On Thursday, Mr. Biden specifically proposed a $300 billion increase in government spending on research and development of technologies like electric vehicles and 5G cellular networks, as well as an additional $400 billion in federal procurement spending on products that are manufactured in the United States. Mr. Biden described it as a level of investment “not seen since the Great Depression and World War II” and emphasized that a top priority was to expand prosperity to all corners of the country, both racial and geographic.
11. Apple, Microsoft, Amazon, Alphabet, and Facebook form nearly a quarter of the market capitalisation of S&P 500, up from 15% in early 2019.

12. The Competition Commission of India (CCI) approves the Adani Ports' acquisition of 75% of Krishnapatnam Port from the CVR Group. Adani now has ten domestic ports in six maritime states - Mundra, Dahej, Kandla and Hazira in Gujarat, Dhamra in Odisha, Mormugao in Goa, Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, Kattupalli and Ennore in Tamil Nadu. They have the capacity to handle a combined 395 mt of cargo, accounting for 24% of the country's total port  capacity. It is also developing a container transshipment facility at Vizhinjam. 

13. Very good data series piece in Livemint which captures the problems with India's GDP calculations. This graphic comparing the periods from 2005-11 and 2012-18 says it all.
So does this about wage indicators
This first part of the data series has a good graphic on the relative performance of India over the last two decades, and it's very impressive.
14. A reality check on the performance of the Indian equity markets,
In the last five years, returns have been around 6 per cent (in rupee terms). From 2010, the Sensex returns have seen compound annual growth (CAGR) of around 6 per cent in rupee terms. In dollar terms, CAGR returns have been abysmal 1.5 per cent over a decade. While we keep getting excited, long-term returns from Indian equities have been below fixed deposit (FD) returns for several years now.
15. Finally, a well argued case for Presidential system for India by Shashi Tharoor. Needless to say, this is a very complex issue with no clear answers. Advocates will always be excessively optimistic and critics always excessively pessimistic.

          

The emerging face of Chinese foreign policy   

Cache   

The contours of a new approach in Chinese foreign policy is emerging rapidly. It has by now antagonised most of its neighbours and major powers. Even tiny Bhutan has not been spared - by introducing the new formal claim over Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary, China is claiming over 10% of Bhutanese territory! This is a good list of all its neighbourhood disputes - 17 land and water territorial disputes.

Over a period of less than six months, the Chinese government has managed to squander all the goodwill and influence it had accumulated over decades from its contribution to global economic growth, both among governments and publics at large. What makes this feat at wanton diplomatic self-destruction even more remarkable is that it has come despite everything that Donald Trump has done to alienate the US from its own allies and undercut America's own commitment to a stable global order.

Today, apart from those betrothed due to economic compulsions, which is a deeply undesirable state of relationship, there is no major country (apart from Russia) which the Chinese could count on as a partner, leave aside friend or ally. In the history of the world, there is perhaps no parallel for such  rapid diplomatic self-destruction.

See this and this on the Xi Jinping turn that has broken with the long-held Deng Xiaoping's approach of "hide your strength, bide your time, and never take the lead". This and this are earlier posts on the  associated reset in relations between China and the western countries. The pace of unravelling is most likely only getting expedited.

For sure, some of it is also the birth pangs of a new power which feels it has arrived at the global scene. But even by this yardstick, Chinese foreign policy has been excessively abrasive and needlessly so.

Britain is the best example of a country which has swung from tight embrace of China to a abrupt decoupling now. The FT has a nice story on the reversal in UK-China relations. Like US and others, the government of David Cameron too believed that engagement could change China,
The British approach has rested in part on the hope that Beijing would open itself progressively to western goods and influences. However, over the past decade, the government has been faced with growing evidence that China was actually moving in the opposite direction. On the political front, the limited space that once existed for legal activists and non-governmental groups has eroded, especially since Mr Xi took power in 2013, while the media has become even more tightly-controlled. The direction of industrial policy has also reduced the space for foreign companies in the Chinese economy. There was dismay in western capitals when in 2015 Beijing launched its “Made in China 2025” strategy, which aims to secure Chinese dominance in 10 high-tech sectors.
The culmination of the reversal has been the decision to bar Huawei from participating in UK's 5G roll-out and the directive that all operators should phase out Huawei from their networks by 2027.  This comes six months after the UK had decided to allot upto 35% of the 5G rollout to Huawei. The decision comes on the back of UK intelligence chiefs warning that they could not assure that the new kit used by Huawei would be secure.

Further, this decision has been taken despite it likely to cost UK operators an additional £2 billion and delay the roll-out by 2-3 years. Also UK's dependence on Chinese imports has not been a deterrent in the country's diplomatic about-turn.
A recent study by the Henry Jackson Society, a think-tank, found that the UK was “strategically dependent” on China for 229 out of 831 categories of traded goods. This is defined as a situation where the country both imports more than 50 per cent of its supplies from China and Beijing controls more than 30 per cent of the global market for that good. 
China has not only done little to help its cause, but has done everything possible to the contrary. It has become a feature in recent times that Chinese diplomacy loses all its diplomacy when faced with any disagreement with a partner. This is a good latest balance sheet of the country's 'wolf-warrior' diplomacy,
China routinely chastises states that say or do things that upset it. The first step is to cancel meetings between politicians, as happened when Mr Cameron’s government was put in the freezer for a year after he met the Dalai Lama, Tibet’s spiritual leader. Economic threats come next. China is Britain’s third-largest trading partner after America and the European Union, with 5% of total trade, and its government is skilled at targeting symbolic and politically sensitive exporters. Norwegian salmon exports were hit after the Nobel peace prize was awarded to a Chinese dissident. Australia’s beef and barley exports were choked after it called for an international probe into the coronavirus outbreak.
This is another example of China's very crude effort to arm-twist UK, 
China also tries to use its influence in education to protect itself from criticism. Testimony to a UK parliamentary select committee in January 2019 describes how the Chinese embassy threatened to cut off the flow of Chinese students — and cash — to Oxford university unless the vice-chancellor, Louise Richardson, stopped Chris Patten, the chancellor and a former Hong Kong governor, from visiting the ex-British colony. She refused.
Its 'wolf-warrior' diplomats, perhaps in their attempts to signal appropriately to the single leader, have been outdoing each other in abrasiveness and lack of diplomacy. It is hard not to feel that they have lowered China's credibility and influence among atleast a generation of interlocutors from other countries. 

Through his July 6 press conference, Liu Xiaoming, the Chinese ambassador in London, may have made the UK's decision to bar Huawei almost inevitable. This statement, in particular, left no room for any nuance.
“We want to be your friend, we want to be your partner, but if you want to make China a hostile country, you have to bear the consequences.”
Whatever he was thinking, after this brazen threat, it may be impossible for him to ever regain the trust of any of his British interlocutors. But Liu has a low bar to cross considering that he is following in the footsteps of  colleagues like this.

As Kurt Campbell and Mira Rapp-Hooper have written, Xi appears convinced of the country's continued rise and feels that China is done biding its time. They point to the aggressive foreign policy stance of China since the pandemic broke out. This goes beyond the tone, tenor and behaviours of its diplomats. Xi calculates that "China will gain more by flexing its military and economic muscles even if it loses some of its soft power along the way". Accordingly, 
Over the past few months, it has upped the ante in nearly all of its many territorial disputes and even provoked new ones, in another departure from past practice. The political scientist Taylor Fravel has shown that China has long prioritized among its territorial disputes, pressing ahead with some and putting others on the back burner to avoid courting too much tension at once. That restraint seems to have fallen by the wayside. Since March, China has stepped up its patrols near the Diaoyu Islands (known in Japan as the Senkaku Islands) in the East China Sea and doubled down on its maritime claims in the South China Sea, sending vessels to linger off the coasts of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam. It has conducted aerial reconnaissance near Taiwan, effectively ended Hong Kong’s semiautonomous status, ginned up a new border dispute with Bhutan, and by all appearances, provoked a deadly border clash with India in what was the People’s Liberation Army’s first use of force abroad in 30 years. Any one of these moves by Beijing might have been unsurprising on its own. Put together, however, they amount to a highly unusual full-court press.
Once content to permit diversity and different sets of norms to persist inside China’s semiautonomous territories, the CCP has also reversed course when it comes to its national periphery. In the western province of Xinjiang, a government crackdown on the Muslim Uighur minority, initiated before the pandemic hit, has since turned into a campaign of ethnic cleansing. Meanwhile, a controversial new national security law has all but stripped Hong Kong of its unique legal status. The law contains provisions that could potentially transcend national boundaries and extend Chinese jurisprudence globally, marking a shift from China’s traditionally defensive conception of sovereignty to a more offensive approach to extend Beijing’s authority. China has long resisted international efforts that it saw as endangering national sovereignty, rejecting, for example, the responsibility to protect (R2P) doctrine, which aims to prevent genocide and humanitarian crises. Now, Chinese sovereignty appears to come in only one form—the one imposed by the CCP.
Even beyond its immediate neighborhood, China now seems willing to court controversy, even open hostility. Its approach to Australia is a case in point. After Canberra called for an independent investigation into the origins of the pandemic, Beijing issued a harsh rebuke and imposed trade sanctions on Australia. It also appears to have carried out a series of cyberattacks against Australian government servers and businesses. Australian public opinion is rapidly turning against China as a result, with growing support for a more hard-line foreign policy... The stubbornness on display in China’s treatment of Australia—the determination to barrel through instead of recalibrating—is emblematic of a wider shift.
Campbell and Rapp-Hooper makes this important point about the changed foreign policy stance,
When Beijing encountered unforeseen foreign policy challenges in the past, it followed a clear process of deliberation that was comprehensible to outside observers. That has not been the case of late. Xi is rumored to be making many of the most important decisions himself, without even a trusted cohort of advisers. This may help explain why China’s foreign policy has become less risk averse: with fewer voices pitching in, an undaunted Xi may have no one to dissuade him from pressing ahead. Past Chinese leaders, notably Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zemin, believed in the institutionalized processes of collective leadership. Xi has disabled or neutralized many of these channels. The world may now be getting a sense of what China’s decision-making looks like when a singularly strong leader acts more or less on his own.
This extra-territoriality of the Hong Kong security legislation is stunning,
There is another important concern with the so-called National Security law, which directly impacts European fundamental interests: it infringes on the rights of foreigners in general and those of European citizens in particular. Its article 38 states “This Law shall apply to offences under this Law committed against the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region from outside the Region by a person who is not a permanent resident of the Region.” Yes, a European citizen who in her home country argues in favour of self-determination for Hong Kong (or Taiwan, or Tibet for that matter) falls afoul of the law and could be imprisoned. The same holds for a European parliamentarian who calls for sanctions against China. And by writing this column, so have I.
This imperial foreign policy will have its moment under the sun. But, as with other dimensions of the Xi Jinping turn, this may only be expediting the unravelling of the hitherto smooth Chinese growth story. The history of such one-man driven foreign policy pursuits have not been pleasant. Unfortunately, its costs are also borne by foreigners. 

The oft-raised point (also drummed by Chinese diplomats) about dependence on Chinese imports and capital being a concern for other countries cuts the other way with China too. Perhaps even more so. While the importers, especially the developed countries which form the vast majority of Chinese export share, will substitute away to other sources and products, the loss of export markets, with all associated credibility loss from export-restrictions, is likely to hurt China much more. The numbers of workers who are likely to lose their jobs are very significant, and likely in concentrated pockets. Unlike western democracies which are better placed to cope with such structural shifts, an autocratic China will find it a very difficult challenge, and that too especially when the economy is slowing.   

Further, for a country striving to escape the jinxed middle-income trap, technology transfers from developed economies are very important. What makes this critical is the sequential or ladder nature of many technology applications, where newer ones are built on pre-existing technologies. The effects of being choked off many of these pre-existing technologies, as has been illustrated with the example of Huawei, can have a cascading effect across the technology chain. It is inconceivable for one country to locally develop capabilities and expertise across the spectrum of advanced technologies. The squeeze felt by Huawei is only an illustration.

It has to be kept in mind that but for all its famed manufacturing prowess, Chinese companies lag far behind Japanese and even South Korean in penetrating western markets on branded and high technology products. Apart from mobile phones, there is hardly any Chinese global consumer brand. Not one clothing or footwear brand! In technology, apart from Huawei and in heavy engineering and infrastructure, Chinese companies' global presence is nothing to speak of. How many IT products, much less cutting-edge, have emerged out of China? Even the behemoths like Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu, Didi Chuxing etc have struggle outside China. At best they are in Africa and South East Asia.  And as the case of TikTok shows, it is only likely to get more difficult to make inroads outside. In the financial markets too, Chinese financial institutions and financial products have limited global presence. 

We should be careful not to confuse being the manufacturing back-office (or factory) of the world with being at the technology frontier.

While the spectacular success of Chinese exporters has captured all the attention, a less discussed but perhaps more important feature of Chinese economic growth has been the local dominance of its own home-grown companies across sectors. In other words, the Chinese industrial policy has been as much about Make in China for China as it has been for Make in China for the World. In fact, the former laid the foundations for the success of the latter. India's singular lack of focus on Make in India for India (in areas like clothing, footwear, basic electronics, consumer durables etc) stands out in this regard. 

Even in areas where it has a comparative advantage, like with the voluminous data which supposedly gives it a head start in areas like AI, facial recognition and so on, we are now realising the limitations of the technology itself. The limitations of vast volumes of data from the very distinct monoculture of Chinese population and market are likely to become evident soon. 

Foreign policy is only one of the areas where Xi Jinping has taken the country backward. See this (HT: Ananth) detailed letter from civil rights activist Xu Zhiyong where he documents the ways in which China has gone backward on economic reforms and civil rights and demands that Xi step down.

Update 1 (26.07.2020)

Alan Crawford in Bloomberg has a good summary of how Chinese actions have riled up other countries. The souring of relations with Europeans, in particular, has been remarkable.

This report captures the new challenges faced by Chinese technology companies with big global ambitions, who now face the prospect of having to remain confined to China. 

          

Volunteering works at organic farm   

Cache   



[by teo cheng huat, beijing]
My wife , Leng & myself got ourshelves involve in a organic farm and garden design project in FangShan District, 123km outskirts of beijing. Existing farm was built for school children educational program to learn about organic farming. The farm had become old and lots of facilities are out dated and need to be redesign and organise into a more exciting place. We decided and propose a vegetable garden, book store, camping facility, pond with aquatic plants and animal farm sections. We are very excited about this project and so are our friends. Everyone is going crazy about the CONVID19 situation with school and offices closed. However project like this are encourage as it happen in a vast open area. Local authorities supported this project and offer free plants, fertilizers and equipments. We invited friends to volunteer for planting works and the response was overwhelming! The farm owner prepare lunches totally  cook with ingredients from the farm. Each volunteers are given packs of organic vegetable and fruits from the farm to bring home. These sketches are drawn for the 1st volunteer sessions and we are arranging another soon.










          

海普诺凯1897公益萌芽计划十城线下童话剧暖心上演,美好童话守护童心   

Cache   

童话是童年的奇幻宝藏,是孩子最珍贵的礼物,为让更多的孩子感受童话的美好,荷兰高端奶粉品牌海普诺凯1897启动公益萌芽计划让童话剧与孩子在爱的氛围里邂逅相逢。8月9日,海普诺凯1897携手童心守护者爱娃母婴在福建厦门站举办了公益童话剧的演出,让精彩的童话故事在孩子们心中播种爱与美好的种子,用公益的力量守护每一颗纯真美好的童心。

(活动现场)

-践行使命,公益童话剧传递温暖

童心是世界上珍贵的存在,也是品牌与母婴家庭的情感连接点之一。在这一方面,海普诺凯1897秉承着“爱”的初心时刻探索着更好守护童心的方法。2020年,海普诺凯1897启动公益萌芽计划,以童话为切口,建立与父母、孩子心灵上的沟通,借助公益与童话的形式呵护孩子健康成长。从自制裸眼3D童话剧、到创作音乐童话剧、再到打造童话节IP,海普诺凯1897将贵族理念融入到童话剧的探索中,为孩子带来了高品质的戏剧演出。8月9日的公益萌芽日是海普诺凯1897公益萌芽计划的公益联合活动,品牌用童话承载公益,在线下上演暖心公益童话剧,用戏剧形式与孩子交流沟通。在这些活动中,品牌把对孩子的爱与期望寄托在童话故事中,用趣味的表演传递爱与勇敢的价值观,赋予了童话新的精神内涵,也给了孩子心灵上的陪伴。

(活动现场)

童话承载着童年最美好的记忆,它不应该只出现在少数人面前。2019,海普诺凯1897将童话剧带进大凉山,在四川大凉山孩子面前展示了童话的新世界;2020年,海普诺凯1897以“爱”为初心,携手全球代言人郎朗启动了公益萌芽计划。在公益前行的路上,海普诺凯1897一直没有停下它探索的脚步,通过多种形式和各方联动,品牌将爱与善意源源不断的输送到孩子们面前,让更多的孩子能在童话的世界里尽情想象。

-因爱携手, 爱的初心守护童心

今年4月份,海普诺凯1897携手品牌代言人朗朗正式启动了公益萌芽计划,在8月9日萌芽日进行了正式的点亮落地。活动当天除了进行线下公益童话剧的演出外,海普诺凯1897还在现场特别设置了三行诗诗句朗读的活动。将征集到的爱心诗句在会场阅读,用温暖又真挚的文字呵护孩子内心的童真与美好。同时,海普诺凯1897宣布将携手郎朗艺术基金会共同捐赠海普诺凯1897 “快乐的琴键”音乐教室项目来改善孩子们的学习环境,让更多喜欢音乐的孩子实现梦想。此次品牌将公益萌芽日活动分成多个会场协作进行,大大延展了童话剧的公益能量,使这项充满价值、极具意义的公益萌芽计划得以影响到活动外的母婴家庭,吸引更多人的支持。

(海普诺凯1897携手郎朗发起“公益萌芽计划”)

萌芽日的成功开展让公益萌芽计划曝光在了更多群体面前,海普诺凯1897也在持续的内容更新与输出中凝聚起了更多的力量。通过社交平台互动和代言人号召,海普诺凯1897吸引了越来越多的爱心用户参与到公益萌芽计划中来,让公益的力量辐散到活动主体以外的人群,也让更多的孩子能与童话剧相逢。海普诺凯1897在专注用高品质产品陪伴孩子健康成长的同时从未停止过践行社会责任的脚步,在与用户情感交流中,品牌时刻关注着孩子的内心世界,让自身的爱心与情感在公益中找到了安身之所,用向上向善的公益之心守护着孩子内心的纯真美好。

此次活动 海普诺凯1897 联动了福建厦门、浙江乐清、安徽临泉、广东揭阳、山东青岛、湖南长沙、河南商丘、陕西西安、山西长治、云南昆明十座城市上演公益童话剧,让全国各地的孩子感受到了童话的美好。公益之路长远,海普诺凯1897不断坚持探索,用相契合的价值观联合公益同路人为爱前行,将童话与公益结合坚持走出了属于自己的公益之路,期待海普诺凯1897在公益事业中继续深入拓展,肩负起社会责任和公益使命,用爱成就更多孩子的童心梦想。



          

海普诺凯1897公益萌芽计划十城线下童话剧暖心上演,美好童话守护童心   

Cache   

童话是童年的奇幻宝藏,是孩子最珍贵的礼物,为让更多的孩子感受童话的美好,荷兰高端奶粉品牌海普诺凯1897启动公益萌芽计划让童话剧与孩子在爱的氛围里邂逅相逢。8月9日,海普诺凯1897携手童心守护者爱娃母婴在福建厦门站举办了公益童话剧的演出,让精彩的童话故事在孩子们心中播种爱与美好的种子,用公益的力量守护每一颗纯真美好的童心。

(活动现场)

-践行使命,公益童话剧传递温暖

童心是世界上珍贵的存在,也是品牌与母婴家庭的情感连接点之一。在这一方面,海普诺凯1897秉承着“爱”的初心时刻探索着更好守护童心的方法。2020年,海普诺凯1897启动公益萌芽计划,以童话为切口,建立与父母、孩子心灵上的沟通,借助公益与童话的形式呵护孩子健康成长。从自制裸眼3D童话剧、到创作音乐童话剧、再到打造童话节IP,海普诺凯1897将贵族理念融入到童话剧的探索中,为孩子带来了高品质的戏剧演出。8月9日的公益萌芽日是海普诺凯1897公益萌芽计划的公益联合活动,品牌用童话承载公益,在线下上演暖心公益童话剧,用戏剧形式与孩子交流沟通。在这些活动中,品牌把对孩子的爱与期望寄托在童话故事中,用趣味的表演传递爱与勇敢的价值观,赋予了童话新的精神内涵,也给了孩子心灵上的陪伴。

(活动现场)

童话承载着童年最美好的记忆,它不应该只出现在少数人面前。2019,海普诺凯1897将童话剧带进大凉山,在四川大凉山孩子面前展示了童话的新世界;2020年,海普诺凯1897以“爱”为初心,携手全球代言人郎朗启动了公益萌芽计划。在公益前行的路上,海普诺凯1897一直没有停下它探索的脚步,通过多种形式和各方联动,品牌将爱与善意源源不断的输送到孩子们面前,让更多的孩子能在童话的世界里尽情想象。

-因爱携手, 爱的初心守护童心

今年4月份,海普诺凯1897携手品牌代言人朗朗正式启动了公益萌芽计划,在8月9日萌芽日进行了正式的点亮落地。活动当天除了进行线下公益童话剧的演出外,海普诺凯1897还在现场特别设置了三行诗诗句朗读的活动。将征集到的爱心诗句在会场阅读,用温暖又真挚的文字呵护孩子内心的童真与美好。同时,海普诺凯1897宣布将携手郎朗艺术基金会共同捐赠海普诺凯1897 “快乐的琴键”音乐教室项目来改善孩子们的学习环境,让更多喜欢音乐的孩子实现梦想。此次品牌将公益萌芽日活动分成多个会场协作进行,大大延展了童话剧的公益能量,使这项充满价值、极具意义的公益萌芽计划得以影响到活动外的母婴家庭,吸引更多人的支持。

(海普诺凯1897携手郎朗发起“公益萌芽计划”)

萌芽日的成功开展让公益萌芽计划曝光在了更多群体面前,海普诺凯1897也在持续的内容更新与输出中凝聚起了更多的力量。通过社交平台互动和代言人号召,海普诺凯1897吸引了越来越多的爱心用户参与到公益萌芽计划中来,让公益的力量辐散到活动主体以外的人群,也让更多的孩子能与童话剧相逢。海普诺凯1897在专注用高品质产品陪伴孩子健康成长的同时从未停止过践行社会责任的脚步,在与用户情感交流中,品牌时刻关注着孩子的内心世界,让自身的爱心与情感在公益中找到了安身之所,用向上向善的公益之心守护着孩子内心的纯真美好。

此次活动 海普诺凯1897 联动了福建厦门、浙江乐清、安徽临泉、广东揭阳、山东青岛、湖南长沙、河南商丘、陕西西安、山西长治、云南昆明十座城市上演公益童话剧,让全国各地的孩子感受到了童话的美好。公益之路长远,海普诺凯1897不断坚持探索,用相契合的价值观联合公益同路人为爱前行,将童话与公益结合坚持走出了属于自己的公益之路,期待海普诺凯1897在公益事业中继续深入拓展,肩负起社会责任和公益使命,用爱成就更多孩子的童心梦想。



          

Building Anti-Surveillance Ed-Tech   

Cache   

These are the slides and transcript from my conversation this morning with Paul Prinsloo — a webinar sponsored by Contact North

Pardon me if I just rant a little. Pardon my language. Pardon my anger and my grief. Or don’t. Let us sit with our anger and our grief a little.

We are living in terrible, terrible times — a global pandemic, economic inequality exacerbated by economic depression, dramatic and worsening climate change, rampant police violence, and creeping fascism and ethno-nationalism. And in the midst of all this danger and uncertainty, we have to navigate both old institutions and practices — may of which are faltering under a regime of austerity and anti-expertise — and new(ish) technology corporations — many of which are more than happy to work with authoritarians and libertarians.

Education technology — as a field, an ideology — sits right at that overlap but appears to be mostly unwilling to recognize its role in the devastation. It prefers to be heralded as a savior. Too many of its advocates refuse to truly examine the ways in which ed-tech makes things worse or admit that the utopia they've long peddled has become a hellscape of exploitation and control for a great deal of the people laboring in, with, under its systems.

Ed-tech may not be the solution; in fact, ed-tech may be the problem — or at the very least, a symptom of such.

Back in February — phew, remember February? — Jeffrey Moro, a PhD candidate in English at the University of Maryland, wrote a very astute blog post "Against Cop Shit" in the classroom.

"For the purposes of this post," Moro wrote, "I define 'cop shit' as 'any pedagogical technique or technology that presumes an adversarial relationship between students and teachers.' Here are some examples:

  • ed-tech that tracks our students' every move
  • plagiarism detection software
  • militant tardy or absence policies, particularly ones that involve embarrassing our students, e.g. locking them out of the classroom after class has begun
  • assignments that require copying out honor code statements
  • 'rigor,' 'grit,' and 'discipline'
  • any interface with actual cops, such as reporting students' immigration status to ICE and calling cops on students sitting in classrooms.

The title of this webinar is "Building Anti-Surveillance Ed-Tech," but that's a bit of a misnomer as I'm less interested in either "buiding" or in "ed-tech." Before we build, we need to dismantle the surveillance ed-tech that already permeates our schools. And we need to dismantle the surveillance culture that it's emerged from. I think this is one of our most important challenges in the months and years ahead. We must abolish "cop shit," recognizing that almost all of ed-tech is precisely that.

I know that that makes people bristle, particularly if your job is administering the "cop shit" or if you are compelled by those with more authority at work to use "cop shit" or if you believe that "cop shit" is necessary because how else do we keep everyone safe.

Why do we have so much "cop shit" in our classrooms, Moro asks. "One provisional answer is that the people who sell cop shit are very good at selling cop shit," he writes, "whether that cop shit takes the form of a learning management system or a new pedagogical technique. Like any product, cop shit claims to solve a problem. We might express that problem like this: the work of managing a classroom, at all its levels, is increasingly complex and fraught, full of poorly defined standards, distractions to our students' attentions, and new opportunities for grift. Cop shit, so cop shit argues, solves these problems by bringing order to the classroom. Cop shit defines parameters. Cop shit ensures compliance. Cop shit gives students and teachers alike instant feedback in the form of legible metrics."

I don't think that ed-tech created "cop shit" in the classroom or created a culture of surveillance in schools by any means. But it has facilitated it. It has streamlined it. It has polished it and handed out badges for those who comply with it and handed out ClassDojo demerits for those who haven't.

People who work in ed-tech and with ed-tech have to take responsibility for this, and not just shrug and say it's inevitable or it's progress or school sucked already and it's not our fault. We have to take responsibility because we are facing a number of crises — some old and some new — that are going to require us to rethink how and why we monitor and control teachers and students. And now, the “cop shit" that schools are being sold isn't just mobile apps that track whether you've completed your homework on time. It's body temperature scanners. Contact tracing. Movement tracking. Immigration status. Political affiliation.

Surveillance practices pre-date digital technologies — of course they do. I pulled my copy of Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish off the shelf to re-read as I prepared for this talk (and for my next book project, which will be on the history of surveilling children — someday, I'll regale you all with the story of how the baby monitor was invented and reinvented to respond to moral panics of the day), and roll your eyes all you want at the invocation of poststructuralism and the Panopticon. But this is where we reside.

Surveillance in schools reflects the values that schools have (unfortunately) prioritized: control, compulsion, distrust, efficiency. Surveillance is necessary, or so we've been told, because students cheat, because students lie, because students fight, because students disobey, because students struggle. Much of the physical classroom layout, for example, is meant to heighten surveillance and diminish cheating opportunities: the teacher in a supervisory stance at the front of the class, wandering up and down the rows of desks and peering over the shoulders of students. (It's easier, I should note, to shift the chairs in your classroom around than it is to shift the code in your webinar software.) And all of this surveillance, we know, plays out very differently for different students in different schools — which schools require schools to walk through metal detectors, which schools call the police for disciplinary infractions, which schools track what students do online, even when they're at home. And nowadays, especially when they're at home.

Of course, educators — teachers and staff — are at home now too. (Or my god, I hope they are.) And the surveillance technology that's been wielded against students will surely be used against them as well.

We can already see some of this at place outside of educational institutions in the new, workplace surveillance tools that many companies are adopting. For a very long time, the argument that many employers made against working from home was that they didn't trust their employees to be productive. The supervisor needed to be able to walk by your desk at any moment and make sure you were "gonna have those TPS reports to us by this afternoon," to borrow a phrase from the movie Office Space. Companies are now installing software on employees' computers to track where they are, for how long, doing what. Much as education technology is designed on the basis of distrust of students, enterprise technology — that is, technology sold to large businesses — is designed around a distrust of workers. Again, there's a long history here — one that isn't just about computing. The punch clock, for example, was invented in 1888 by a jeweler William LeGrand Bundy in order to keep track of what time his employees came and left work. He and his brother founded the Bundy Manufacturing Company to manufacture the devices, and after a series of mergers, it became a part of a little company called International Business Machines — one we know better as IBM. Those "business machines" were sold with the promise of more efficient workplaces, of course, and that meant monitoring workers. And that included the work teachers and students do at school.

Zoom, this lovely piece of videoconferencing software we are using right now, is an example of enterprise technology. Zoom never intended to serve the education market, despite its widespread adoption since "work-from-home" began earlier this year. And there is quite a bit about the functionality of the Zoom software that reveals whose interests it serves — the ability to track who's paying attention, for example, and who's actually working on something else in a different application (a feature, I will say, that the company disabled earlier after complaints about its fairly abysmal security and privacy practices).

Who's cheating the time-clock, right? Who's cheating the boss. What are workers doing? What are workers saying? Enterprise software and ed-tech software — both "cop shit" — claim they can inform the management — the principal, the provost. This software claims it knows what we're up to, and if it can't stop us from misbehaving, it can narc us out.

What it's been coded to identify as "misbehavior" is fairly significant. Early in June, if you'll recall, at the bequest of Beijing, Zoom disabled the accounts of Chinese dissidents who were planning on commemorating Tiananmen Square protests — something that should give us great pause when it comes to academic freedom on a platform that so many schools have adopted.

Digital technology companies like to say that they're increasingly handing over decision-making to algorithms — it's not that Beijing made us do it; the algorithm did. Recall Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg testifying before Congress, insisting that AI would prevent abuse and disinformation. But Facebook does not rely on AI; content moderation is still performed by people — it's terrible, traumatizing, low-pay work.

Ah, the sleight of hand when it comes to the promises of automation. Recall the mechanical Turk, for example, an eighteenth-century machine that purported to be an automated chess-player that was actually operated by a human hidden inside.

Automation is, nonetheless, the promise of surveillance ed-tech — that is, the automation of the work of disciplining, monitoring, grading. We've seen, particularly with the switch to online learning, a push for more proctoring "solutions" that gather immense amounts of data to ascertain whether or not a student is cheating. Proctoring software is some of the most outrageous "cop shit" in schools right now.

These tools gather and analyze far more data than just a student's responses on an exam. They require a student show photo identification to their laptop camera before the test begins. Depending on what kind of ID they use, the software gathers data like name, signature, address, phone number, driver’s license number, passport number, along with any other personal data on the ID. That might include citizenship status, national origin, or military status. The software also gathers physical characteristics or descriptive data including age, race, hair color, height, weight, gender, or gender expression. It then matches that data that to the student's "biometric faceprint" captured by the laptop camera. Some of these products also capture a student's keystrokes and keystroke patterns. Some ask for the student to hand over the password to their machine. Some track location data, pinpointing where the student is working. They capture audio and video from the session — the background sounds and scenery from a student's home. Some ask for a tour of the student's room to make sure there aren't "suspicious items" on the walls or nearby.

The proctoring software then uses this data to monitor a student's behavior during the exam and to identify patterns that it infers as cheating — if their eyes stray from the screen too long, for example. The algorithm — sometimes in concert with a human proctor — determines who is a cheat. But more chilling, I think, the algorithm decides who suspicious, what is suspicious.

We know that algorithms are biased, because we know that humans are biased. We know that facial recognition software struggles to identify people of color, and there have been reports from students of color that the proctoring software has demanded they move into more well-lit rooms or shine more light on their faces during the exam. Because the algorithms that drive the decision-making in these products is proprietary and "black-boxed," we don't know if or how it might use certain physical traits or cultural characteristics to determine suspicious behavior.

We do know there is a long and racist history of physiognomy and phrenology that has attempted to predict people's moral character from their physical appearance. And we know that schools have a long and racist history too that runs adjacent to this, as do technology companies — and this is really important. We can see how the mistrust and loathing of students is part of a proctoring company culture and gets baked into a proctoring company's software when, for example, the CEO posts copies of a student's chat logs with customer service onto Reddit, as the head of Proctorio did last month.

That, my friends, is some serious "cop shit." Cops have no business in schools. And frankly, neither does Proctorio.

So, if we are to build anti-surveillance ed-tech, we have much to unwind within the culture and the practices of schools — so much unwinding and dismantling before we even start building.

Indeed, I will close by saying that — as with so much in ed-tech — the actual tech itself may be a distraction from the conversation we should have about what we actually want teaching and learning to look like. We have to chance the culture of schools not just adopt kinder ed-tech. Chances are, if you want to focus on the tech because it's tech, you're selling "cop shit."


          

Tim Cook Travels to China, Meets With Vice Premier and Developers   

Cache   

Apple CEO Tim Cook is in China this week forward of a annual China Development Forum that promotes mercantile expansion in a country. Cook was photographed during an Apple Store in Beijing’s executive Wangfujing selling district on Thursday, where he attended a music-related Today during Apple session. On Friday, Cook met with developers and visited ...

          

Owen Wilkins officially signed the artist management contract with Joe's Music International-吳文瑄正式加入「就是音樂」旗下   

Cache   

就是音樂國際有限公司/Joe’s Music International Co., Ltd.
簽約藝人『Owen 吳文瑄』公告聲明/Owen Wilkins Artist Management Announcement

(一) 就是音樂Joe’s Music 于 2015/8/7日起, 正式與「Owen 吳文瑄」簽約, 成為公司旗下藝人, 展開演藝經紀之事業合作。並特此公告。Joe's Music International will be Owen Wilkins's sole artist management company starting August 7th, 2015.

(二) 日後相關 Owen吳文瑄 之演藝工作, 請與“就是音樂”
聯繫, 方式如下:

For all potential work, please contact Meimei at Joe's Music.

就是音樂 Joe’s Music
電話/Phone: +886-2-87918591
地址/Address : 台北市內湖區新湖二路219號4樓/4F, No. 219, Xihu 2nd Rd, Neihu District, Taipei, Taiwan 114
官網/Facebook: https://Model.blue/splash/PjZ_PLUS_LPo_PLUS_b179NuRaSEU_SLASH_ofXYDgsloU5rp3rEBPCWUCUf_SLASH_UNev96X9bdsFHC4VbV0utbcDnsq9k6T7Q74QkYKPvd802C_PLUS_6OhE6_PLUS_vN5sMAki1vU4glVM1Tw0NMLAIsiYtI

責任窗口/Point of Contact:
經紀總監/Artist Agent:楊麗穎(Mei-Mei)
電話/Phone:+886-938-963878
Email:meimei5157@gmail.com
WeChat ID:yangmeimei5157

============================
Owen officially signed the artist management contract with Joe's Music International-吳文瑄正式加入「就是音樂」旗下Owen has officially signed a full Artist Management contract with Joe's Music International. When the news spread, I have received a lot of messages congratulating Owen. In my mind, I think this is just a beginning of a new chapter. There is still a lot of work to be done.

For people who know Owen, he is a kid who has his ideas and what he wants to do. There are certain things that attract him and once he finds out, he sets his mind to it. For example, he loves hands on work. So, he constantly works on computer programming with Robotics and loves to create animation and enjoys mechanical design. He feels the same way about the stage.

The stage has a huge attraction to him. He loves to be in front of people and perform even though he claims he gets butterflies in his stomach still. He enjoys practicing a dance, a song, or guitar and perform it. Since he was little, he had dabbled in modeling, acting, and performing here and there for a while and his two serious large performance gigs were Super Idol 2 in Taiwan and the Master Class in Beijing, China. In these two shows, Owen experienced what it means to choreograph, practice day in day out, and only perform a few minutes on stage. He got a taste of what it means to be a performer and he truly enjoys the adrenaline.

There are many people he needs to thank for helping him to get to this far. All of the crew at the Master Class (I listed them below in the Chinese section) and all of the teachers he's had so far, Aya, A-May, 小強, 牛奶, and Vanessa. All of you have helped him to be better and better. Not just from the perspective of learning, also, you have all helped him grow as a person. You taught him to have a good attitude, to be polite, to know that there are a lot more to learn no matter how good you are. We also need to thank Gary Chaw. After meeting Owen at the Master Class, he unselfishly took Owen under his wings and started to mentor him not only just on the show, even off the show too. Owen is lucky to join his company.

We will remember where we started, where we have been, and where we need to go. Never forget being grateful.
=====================
這幾天自從Owen簽約曹格老師的「就是音樂」公司消息傳出之後,祝賀的消息一直不斷,直到今天我才有時間來想想這件事對Owen的影響和意義是什麼。認識Owen的人都知道,他是一個很有自己想法的孩子,很獨立,找到他想做的事,沒有人可以擋住他。

從一年半前參加超級接班人開始,他對舞蹈開始真正的有些興趣,舞台開始對他有莫名的吸引力之後,他一直在這方面過展他的興趣,從練舞蹈,練breaking,到練體操,都是為了他能跳舞跳得更好,從一年前開始學唱歌,都是他想要站上舞台表演。到去年,被選上參加北京衛視的音樂大師課,這一步一步走來,不單是他的努力,還有更多在幕後的推手,鼓勵著他,支持著他,還有許多貴人一直默默的幫著他。

從躍動國際的Boris和鼹鼠 (還有已離開的羅漢),沒有兩位,哥哥妹妹就沒有辦法站上中國夢想秀的舞台,沒有兩位得積極努力,我們也不可能去環球酷奇炫。我們也很清楚的知道,音樂大師課猜剛有雛型時,你們就已經早早的告訴製作單位哥哥是個可能的人選。雖然後來沒有下文,你們為我們所做的一切,我們銘記在心。

還有音樂大師課裡的每一個工作人員,毛毛、萌萌、Molly、小豬導演、胡導、姚導、Jueru、楊老師、崔老師、萬老師、曉明導演、丹丹姐,還有一大堆我沒辦法一一在這裡說的(請恕我老人家記性不好),你們讓Owen體驗到什麼叫做練歌、唱歌、表演。他看到了什麼是專業,什麼是熱情,什麼是執著。

當然,如果我一直謝下去,永遠也謝不完,所有教過Owen的老師們,無論只是在節目上、私人的才藝老師、你們都對他有相當多的啟發、影響。最後,感謝發瘋文絕對少不了要提到曹格老師,願意長長久久的指導Owen, 收他當弟子,來找Owen簽約的公司不少,他只願意跟隨老師,往後,要麻煩你了還有公司所有的人多多照顧了。

可能有人看了這篇文,會覺得我做作,發什麼神經,Owen離出名那天還早得很,可能那一天根本不會到,寫這種文不會太早嗎?我只覺得做人要感恩,要勿忘初衷,要知道自己怎麼一路走來,才能知道要怎麼走下去,所以,當我發瘋也好,當我做作也好,有些話,就是一定要說才痛快。

做人要感恩,謝謝。

(PS,我的中文真差,寫了一天多才寫完,汗顏)


          

BGI Nobel Laureates Archives (2)   

Cache   

CSHL Library & Archives together with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory are proud to announce a fantastic $5 million dollar gift from Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) which will help us to support and maintain the current archives of Nobel Prize Laureates and future Nobel Prize Laureates Collections, as well as create new educational programs.

For a short video about the significance of this gift, please see:

 Significance of BGI gift

BGI Annoucement

Back row: Richard Durbin, Bruce Stillman, Walter Gilbert, Robert Waterston, Henry Yang, Yuqing Jiang, Charles Bao, Damon Zhang.
Front row: Yongwei Zhang, Mila Pollock, Audrey Kong.


          

EXPOZIŢIA „DRUMUL VASELOR PICTATE. O CONEXIUNE ÎNAINTEA DRUMULUI MĂTĂSII”   

Cache   

EXPOZIŢIA  „DRUMUL VASELOR PICTATE. O CONEXIUNE ÎNAINTEA DRUMULUI MĂTĂSII”
Comunicat de presă EXPOZIŢIA „DRUMUL VASELOR PICTATE. O CONEXIUNE ÎNAINTEA DRUMULUI MĂTĂSII” Muzeul „Vasile Pârvan” Bârlad are deosebita bucurie de a organiza o nouă expoziție cu tematică arheologică în colaborare cu Muzeul de Istorie a Moldovei din cadrul Complexului Muzeal Național „Moldova” Iași, Institutul de Arheologie din Beijing al Academiei…

          

Marathon gold for Kenya's Wanjiru   

Cache   

Sammy Wanjiru wins Kenya's first ever gold in the men's marathon, breaking the Olympic record despite the soaring heat in Beijing.

          

Press Kit: Genève Aéroport   

Cache   

In 2018, more than 17.6 million passengers did use this infrastructure. In constant motion, this airport platform continues to grow coping with the increasing demand of the region. Geneva is today connected to more than 148 destinations operated by 57 airlines.

Today its passengers come from the six French-speaking cantons of Switzerland, the neighbouring cities of German-speaking Switzerland (before Zurich became a more convenient option), from neighbouring french departments (mainly Ain and Haute-Savoie, as well as Savoie, Rhône and Isère for specific intercontinental flights) and finally from Northern Italy which naturally aggregates to its catchment area through the Mont Blanc Tunnel and the Autoroute Blanche motorway. Therefore Genève Aéroport represents the centre of gravity of a vast, cross-border, region of 6.5 million inhabitants.

With a specialisation in point-to-point connection (the airport is meant to connect Geneva with Europe’s main capitals and cities within a two-hour flight average radius, and in particular with major hubs such as London, Paris, Amsterdam, Brussels, Frankfurt, etc.) the airport still serves more distant destinations such as New York, Washington, Montreal-Toronto, Beijing and the major hubs of the Arabian Peninsula.

The vocation of Genève Aéroport to ensure primarily short-haul connections has given a significant boost to easyJet, the low cost airline, which now represents 45% of the traffic volume. Anyway, more than half of passengers transiting through Genève Aéroport travel with regular companies. No difference of treatment between passengers of different companies is made, all operators are treated with the same respect and the infrastructure they share is evolving indiscriminately to meet the needs of all passengers.

With the construction of the East Wing building designed to accommodate new boarding lounges primarily intended for long-haul flights, which is due to be opened in 2020, Genève Aéroport is giving itself the means to accommodate its traffic with better quality services and to increase its international attractiveness.

 

A gateway to the Swiss and French Alps, Genève Aéroport is, in summer as in winter, a driver for regional tourism: 95% of passengers landing at Genève Aéroport are staying in the area (and only 5% of them, the “connecting” passengers, will continue their air journey to other destinations).

This feature allows the airport to define itself as the backbone of the region’s economy. Therefore, two-thirds of the businesses in the region claim to be highly dependent on the airport. The airport platform of Geneva is a decisive pull factor for multinational companies established in the area.

Its international dimension, acquired immediately after the Second World War, also made it a driver for the development of the International Geneva which is today hosting the United Nations’ (UN) headquarter, as well as many non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and whose staff represents a cosmopolitan community of more than 40,000 people.

The population of the Canton of Geneva includes over 40% foreign nationals. Thus, the airport also acts as the umbilical cord between these communities and their countries of origin, their roots, their language. In this respect, it plays an important social role, while serving as an exchange accelerator at cultural level.

Property of the State of Geneva, Genève Aéroport is an autonomous public institution since 1994. The company employs more than 1,000 employees who provide nearly 200 different functions. It is the flagship of a site that hosts some 200 other companies employing around 11,000 employees.

Genève Aéroport generates aeronautical income (landing royalties, passenger royalties etc.) and non-aeronautical revenues (parking, estate management, shops and advertising etc.), which enable it every year to cope with the maintenance of its infrastructure and to finance its investments and its development. The company doesn’t receive any subsidies from any public authority. Each year, it pays half its profits to the State.


          

Rencana Anggaran 20% APBN Untuk PENDIDIKAN   

Cache   

Papinto Badut berpose 100 kali dengan anak2 TK, capek deehhh...!Tumben dapat undangan mendongeng 4 x berturut turut serta berpose untuk photo kenangan bersama Badut Papinto dengan seluruh siswa TK pada satu sekolah TK/SD Alma'arif -Bebekan Sepanjang Sidoarjo yang telah berdiri sejak tahun 1939. Dengan bangunan sekolah yang tua dan fasilitas yang sederhana Yayasan Pendidikan milik NU ini masih mampu menjaring murid. Oya anggaran APBN untuk pendidikan yang 20% itu apa juga akan mampir disekolah ini? semoga saja, sebab anak2 berhak memperoleh pendidikan yang layak. Aku harus siapkan dongengan yang pas buat mereka, terutama yang kelas 5 SD. Wah kelas 5 apa mau dengar dongengan? ternyata mau lho dan mereka antusias, maklum dongengan yang aku suguhkan ceritanya tentang Icarus Si Penerbang dengan menggambarkan juga bagaimana cara kerja pesawat terbang di papan tulis, sedangkan untuk anak TK aku dongengin cerita Asal Mula Buah Tomat yang aku karang sendiri. Eh tahu gak aku bawa buah tomat beneran dan pohonnya sekalian di kelas...ya mendongeng sambil peragaan. Sebelum acara dimulai aku juga gabung dengan mereka untuk senam pagi yang penuh canda dan di akhir sesi mendongeng pak wali kelas membagikan doorprize coklat dan roti kering sebagai hadiah pemenag kuis seputar isi dongengan. Acara yang tidak lazim di kelas ini ternyata menyegarkan suasana belajar mereka.


Konvensi Hak-Hak Anak
Ahli Bahasa: Susi Septaviana
Diadopsi dari Dewan Umum PBB pada tanggal 20 November 1989

KONVENSI HAK-HAK ANAK
Teks
Mukadimah
Pihak Negara kepada Konvensi
Menimbang bahwa sehubungan dengan prinsip-prinsip yang diproklamirkan dalam piagam PBB, pengakuan terhadap martabat yang melekat serta persamaan dan hak-hak yang dapat dicabut dari seluruh anggota keluarga umat manusia merupakan fondasi kebebasan, keadilan dan perdamaian di dunia,
Mengingat bahwa masyarakat yang dimiliki PBB, dalam piagam, menegaskan kesetiaannya pada hak-hak asasi fundamental serta dalam martabat dan kebajikan manusia, dan telah menentukan untuk meningkatkan kemajuan sosial dan standar kehidupan yang lebih baik dalam kebebasan yang lebih luas.
Mengakui bahwa PBB, dalam deklarasi universal hak-hak asasi dan dalam pembuatan konvensi internasional, memproklamirkan dan setuju bahwa setiap orang diberikan semua hak dan kebebasan yang dimuat didalamnya, tanpa membedakan apapun, seperti ras, warna kulit, jenis kelamin, bahasa, agama, politik atau pendapat lain, pribumi sosial atau nasional, hak milik, kelahiran atau status lain,
Mengingat bahwa, dalam deklarasi universal tentang hak asasi manusia, PBB telah memproklamirkan bahwa anak-anak harus mendapat pelayanan dan perawatan khusus.
Menegaskan bahwa keluarga, sebagai kelompok masyarakat yang fundamental dan lingkungan alami bagi pertumbuhan dan kesejahteraan dari seluruh anggota dan khususnya anak, harus diberikan perlindungan dan pelayanan yang diperlukan sehingga bisa memikul tanggungjawab sepenuhnya dalam masyarakat.
Mengakui bahwa anak, demi perkembangan kepribadiannya yang harmonis dan penuh, harus tumbuh dalam suatu lingkungan keluarga, dalam suatu suasana bahagia, cinta dan pengertian.
Menimbang bahwa anak harus dipersiapkan untuk hidup dalam suatu kehidupan individu dalam masyarakat, serta tumbuh dalam semangat cita-cita yang dicetuskan dalam piagam PBB, sertakhususnya dalam semangat perdamaian, martabat, toleransi, kebebasan, persamaan dan solidaritas.

Ringkasan tidak resmi dari ketetapan utama
Mukadimah
Pembukaannya menarik kembali prinsip-prinsip dasar PBB dan ketetapan khusus dari perjanjian dan proklamasi hak asasi manusia yang relevan. Ini menegaskan kembali fakta bahwa anak-anak karena kerapuhannya, memerlukan asuhan dan perlindungan khusus, dan menempatkan penekanan khusus pada tanggung jawab keluarga atas pengasuhan dan perlindungan utama. Ini juga menegaskan kembali kebutuhan akan perlindungan legal dan perlindungan lainnya terhadap anak sebelum dan setelah lahir, pentingnya penghargaan atas nilai-nilai budaya dari komunitas anak dan peran penting kerja sama intermasional dalam menjamin hak-hak anak.
Diadopsi dari Dewan Umum PBB pada tanggal 20 November 1989

Mengingat bahwa kebutuhan untuk memperluas kepedulian tertentu terhadap anak telah dinyatakan dalam deklarasi Jenewa tentang hak-hak anak tahun 1924 dan deklarasi hak-hak anak yang dikutip oleh dewan umum pada tanggal 20 November 1959 dan diakui dalam deklarasi universal tentang hak-hak asasi manusia, dalam perjanjian internasional tentang hak-hak perdata dan politik (khususnya dalam artikel 23 dan 24), dalam perjanjian internasional tentang hak-hak ekonomi, sosial dan budaya (khususnya dalam artikel 10) serta undang-undang serta instrumen yang relevan dari agen-agen khusus dan organisasi internasional yang berhubungan dengan kesejahteraan anak.
Mengingat bahwa, seperti yang ditunjukan dalam deklarasi hak anak, “anak, karena disebabkan oleh belum dewasa secara fisik dan mental, memerlukan pengawalan dan perlindungan khusus, termasuk perlindungan legal yang layak, sebelum dan sesudah lahir”,
Mengingat tersusun dalam ketetapan deklarasi tentang prinsip-prinsip legal yang berhubungan dengan perlindungan dan kesejahteraan anak, dengan referensi khusus untuk membantu penempatan dan adopsi secara nasional dan internasional; Peraturan-peraturan minimum standar PBB untuk Administrasi keadilan remaja (Peraturan Beijing); dan deklarasi tentang perlindungan terhadap wanita dan anak dalam konflik emergensi dan senjata
Mengakui bahwa, di seluruh Negara di dunia, ada anak yang tinggal pada kondisi yang sangat sulit, dan anak-anak tersebut memerlukan pertimbangan atau pemikiran khusus
Menimbang pentingnya tradisi dan nilai-nilai budaya dari tiap orang untuk perlindungan dan perkembangan harmonis anak. Mengakui pentingnya kerjasama internasional untuk meningkatkan kondisi anak tiap Negara, khususnya di Negara-Negara berkembang, Menyetujui sebagai berikut:

Bagian I
Artikel 1
Untuk tujuan konvensi sekarang, seorang anak berarti setiap manusia dibawah usia 18 tahun kecuali jika, dibawah undang-undang yang berlaku bagi anak, mayoritas diperoleh lebih awal,

Definisi seorang anak
Seorang anak dihargai sebagai seseorang di bawah usia 18 kecuali hukum nasional mengaku mayoritas lebih dini.

Artikel 2
1. Pihak Negara harus menghormati dan menjamin hak-hak yang diajukan dalam konvensi sekarang pada tiap anak dalam hukum tanpa diskriminasi apapun, tanpa membedakan ras anak atau orang tua atau wali sah, warna kulit, jenis kelamin, bahasa, agama, pendapat politik atau yang lainnya, kesukuan atau asal muasal sosial, hak milik, kecacatan, kelahiran atau status lain.
2. Pihak Negara harus selayaknya mengambil langkah untuk menjamin bahwa anak dilindungi dari segala bentuk diskriminasi atau hukuman terhadap dasar status, aktivitas, pendapat yang dikeluarkan, atau kepercayaan orangtua anak, perwalian legal atau sah, atau anggota keluarga.
Artikel 3.
1. Dalam semua tindakan yang berhubungan dengan anak, apakah itu dilakukan oleh masyarakat atau institusi kesejahteraan sosial, pengadilan hukum, otoritas administrative yang berwenang atau badan-badan legislatif, kepentingan anak yang paling baik harus dipertimbangkan dahulu.
2. Pihak Negara menjamin anak perlindungan dan perawatan tertentu yang diperlukan bagi kesejahteraan, dan mempertimbangkan hak-hak dan tugas-tugas orangtuanya, perwalian sah, atau individu lain yang sah bertanggung jawab atas anak, dan, pada akhirnya harus mengambil seluruh langkah-langkah administratif dan legislatif yang semestinya.
3. Pihak Negara harus menjamin bahwa institusi, pelayanan dan fasilitas yang bertanggung jawab bagi pemeliharaan atau perlindungan anak harus sesuai dengan standar yang dikembangkan oleh otoritas kompeten, khususnya dalam segi keamanan, kesehatan, dalam jumlah serta keselarasan stafnya, juga pengawasan yang kompeten.

Non-diskriminasi
Semua hak-hak berlaku bagi semua anak tanpa pengecualian. Ini merupakan kewajiban Negara untuk melindungi anak dari bentuk diskriminasi apapun dan untuk mengambil tindakan positif untuk mendukung hak-hak mereka.
Kepentingan terbaik anak
Semua tindakan yang berhubungan dengan anak akan dilakukan atas pertimbangan kepentingan terbaik anak. Negara harus menyediakan asuhan yang cukup bagi anak ketika orang tua atau orang lain yang diberikan tanggung jawab tidak dapat melaksanakannya.

Artikel 4
Pihak Negara harus menjalankan seluruh undang undang yang pantas, administrasi, dan langkah-langlah lain yang sesuai untuk implementasi hak-hak yang diakui dalam konvensi sekarang. Sehubungan dengan hak-hak ekonomi, sosial, dan budaya, Pihak Negara harus menjalankan langkah-langkah tertentu semaksimal mungkin dengan sumber-sumber yang tersedia dan, dimana dibutuhkan, dalam kerangka kerja kerjasama internasional.

Artikel 5
Pihak Negara harus menghargai tanggungjawab, hak-hak dan tugas-tugas orangtua atau, dimana dapat diterapkan, anggota-anggota keluarga besar atau masyarakat seperti yang disediakan untuk adat istiadat lokal, perwalian sah atau orang lain yang sah bertanggungjawab untuk anak, untuk menyediakan arahan dan perlindungan yang sesuai pada pelaksanaannya dengan hak-hak anak yang diakui dalam konvensi sekarang dengan mempertimbangkan perkembangan kapasitas anak.

Artikel 6
1. Pihak Negara mengakui bahwa setiap anak memiliki hak yang melekat untuk hidup.
2. Pihak Negara harus menjamin perluasan cakupan perkembangan dan kelangsungan hidup anak secara maksimal.

Artikel 7
1. Anak harus didaftarkan segera setelah kelahiran dan harus mempunyai hak untuk sebuah nama sejak lahir, hak untuk memperoleh kebagsaan dan, sejauh mungkin, hak untuk mengetahui dan dirawat oleh orangtuanya.
2. Pihak Negara harus menjamin implementasi hak-hak ini sehubungan dengan hukum nasional dan kewajibannya dibawah pengawasan alat-alat internasional yang relevan pada bidang ini, khususnya dimana anak di lain pihak tidak memiliki Kewarga Negaraan.

Pelaksanaan hak-hak
Negara harus melakukan semua hal yang dapat dilakukan untuk melaksanakan hak-hak yang terkandung dalam Konvensi tersebut.
Bimbingan orang tua dan kapasitas berkembang anak
Negara harus menghargai hak-hak dan kewajiban-kewajiban orang tua dan anggota keluarga lainnya untuk memberikan bimbingan bagi anak yang sesuai baginya atau bagi kapasitas perkembangannya.
Kelangsungan hidup dan perkembangan
Setiap anak mempunyai hak yang melekat untuk hidup dan Negara mempunyai kewajiban untuk menjamin kelangsungan hidup dan perkembangan anak.
Nama dan Kewarga Negaraan
Setiap anak mempunyai hak atas sebuah nama pada saat lahir. Anak tersebut juga mempunyai hak untuk memperoleh kewargaNegaraan dan, sejauh mungkin, untuk mengenal orang tuanya dan dirawat oleh mereka.
Pemeliharaan identitas
Negara mempunyai kewajiban untuk melindungi dan jika perlu, membangun kembali aspek dasar identitas anak. Ini termasuk nama, warga Negara dan ikatan keluarga.
Perpisahan dari orang tua
Anak mempunyai hak untuk hidup bersama orang tuanya kecuali jika dianggap bertentangan dengan kepentingan terbaik anak. Anak juga mempunyai hak untuk menjaga kontak atau hubungan dengan kedua orang tua jika terpisah dari salah satu orang tua atau keduanya.


Artikel 8
1. Pihak Negara harus menghormati hak anak untuk memelihara identitasnya, termasuk kebangsaan, nama dan hubungan keluarga seperti yang diakui undang-undang tanpa campur tangan yang melanggar hukum.
2. Dimana seorang anak dihilangkan secara legal beberapa atau semua unsur-unsur dari identitasnya, Pihak Negara harus menyediakan perlindungan dan pelayanan yang layak, dengan tujuan membangun kembali identitasnya dengan cepat.

Artikel 9
1. Pihak Negara harus menjamin bahwa seorang anak tidak boleh dipisahkan dari orangtuanya yang bertentangan dengan keinginan mereka, kecuali apabila otoritas kompeten yang tunduk pada hokum menentukannya bahwa pemisahan perlu bagi kepentingan anak yang paling baik, menurut prosedur dan hukum yang berlaku. Ketetapan tertentu mungkin diperlukan dalam kasus tertentu seperti seseorang yang terlibat penyiksaan anak oleh orangtua, atau dimana orangtua tinggal terpisah dan suatu keputusan harus dibuat seperti tempat tinggal si anak.
2. Menurut pendahuluan pada paragraf 1 artikel ini, seluruh Pihak yang terkait harus diberi kesempatan untuk ikut serta dalam pengerjaannya dan membuat gagasannya diketahui.
3. Pihak Negara harus menghormati hak anak yang terpisah dari salah satu orangtua untuk memelihara hubungan pribadi dan hubungan langsung dengan kedua orangtuanya setiap harinya, kecuali jika berlawanan dengan kepentingan terbaik anak.
4. Jika hasil pemisahan disebabkan oleh suatu tindakan yang diawali oleh Pihak Negara, seperti penahanan, penjara, pengasingan, deportasi atau kematian (termasuk kematian yang timbul dari berbagai sebab ketika orang tersebut sedang dalam penahanan Negara) dari salahsatu atau kedua orangtua atau anak, bahwa Pihak Negara harus, berdasarkan permohonan orangtua, anak atau, jika ada, anggota keluarga lain dengan informasi penting yang menyangkut keberadaan anggota keluarga yang hilang kecuali jika informasi tersebut akan merusak kesejahteraan anak. Pihak Negara harus lebih jauh menjamin bahwa pelaksanaan permohonan tersebut dengan tidak sendirinya membawa konsekwensi merugikan bagi orang yang bersangkutan.
.
Artikel 10
1. Menurut kewajiban Pihak Negara dalam artikel 9, paragrap 1, penerapan oleh anak atau orangtuanya untuk memasuki atau meninggalkan suatu Pihak Negara untuk tujuan penyatuan kembali keluarga harus ditangani oleh Pihak Negara secara positif, manusiwi dan cara terbaik. Pihak Negara lebih jauh menjamin bahwa pelaksanaan permohonan tersebut harus tidak menimbulkan konsekwensi merugikan untuk para pelaku dan anggota keluargannya.
2. Seorang anak yang orangtuanya tinggal di Negara lain harus mempunyai hak memelihara hubungan pribadi dan kontak langsung dengan orangtuanya, setiap harinya, dalam keadaan-keadaan khusus. Pada bagian akhir dan menurut kewajiban Pihak Negara dibawah artikel 9, paragrap 1, Pihak Negara harus menghormati hak anak dan orangtuanya untuk meninggalkan suatu Negara, termasuk Negaranya, dan memasuki Negaranya. Hak meninggalkan suatu Negara harus ditujukan saja pada batasan tertentu seperti yang dijelaskan oleh hukum dan yang diperlukan untuk melindungi keamanan Negara, tatanan masyarakat (orde public), kesehatan masyarakat atau moral atau hak-hak serta kebebasan lain dan konsisten dengan hak-hak lain yang diakui dalam konvensi sekarang.

Artikel 11
1. Pihak Negara harus mengambil langkah-langkah untuk memberantas pengiriman anak ke luar negri dan tidak dikembalikan secara tidak sah.
2. Pada akhirnya, Pihak Negara harus meningkatkan kesimpulan perjanjian bilateral dan multilateral atau pencapaian perjanjian yang ada.
Artikel 12
1. Pihak Negara harus menjamin anak yang mampu membentuk pandangannya sendiri hak untuk mengekspresikan pandangan-pandangan tersebut secara bebas dalam segala hal yang mempengaruhi anak, pandangan anak diberi batasan bobot sesuai usia dan kedewasaan anak.
2. Untuk tujuan ini, anak secara khusus harus diberi kesempatan untuk didengar dalam hukum dan jalannya administrasi yang mempengaruhi anak, baik secara langsung, atau melalui suatu perwakilan atau badan yang layak, secara konsisten dengan aturan-aturan prosedur hukum Negara

Penyatuan keluarga kembali
Anak-anak dan orang tuanya mempunyai hak untuk meninggalkan suatu Negara dan untuk masuk ke Negaranya sendiri untuk tujuan reuni atau pemeliharaan hubungan anak dengan orang tua.
Pemindahan atau transfer gelap dan tidak-pulang kembali
Negara mempunyai kewajiban untuk mencegah dan menanggulangi penculikan atau penyimpanan anak-anak di luar negeri oleh orang tua atau pihak ketiga.
Pendapat anak
Anak mempunyai hak untuk mengungkapkan pendapatnya secara bebas dan untuk pendapatnya tersebut dipertimbangkan dalam hal-hal atau prosedur yang mempengaruhi anak.
.
Artikel 13
1. Anak harus mempunyai hak kebebasan berekspresi; hak tersebut harus mencakup kebebasan mencari, menerima dan memberi informasi dan gagasan apapun, tanpa menghiraukan batasan, baik secara lisan, tulisan atau cetakan, dalam bentuk seni, atau melalui media lain yang menjadi pilihan anak.
2. Pelaksanaan hak bisa dikenai dengan batasan tertentu, tapi hal ini hanya akan diterapkan oleh hukum dan ini perlu:
a. Untuk penghargaan hak atau reputasi orang lain atau,
b. Untuk perlindungan keamanan nasional atau tatanan, atau kesehatan atau moral masyarakat.

Artikel 14
1. Pihak Negara akan menghargai hak anak atas kebebasan berfikir, suara hati dan agama.
2. Pihak Negara akan menghormati hak dan tugas orangtua serta, apabila dapat diterapkan, perwalian resmi, untuk memberi arahan pada anak dalam menjalankan haknya dengan secara konsisten mempertimbangkan kapasitas perkembangan anak.
3. Kebebasan memanifestasikan agama atau kepercayaan seseorang hanya dikenakan dengan batasan-batasan tertentu seperti dijelaskan oleh hukum dan diperlukan untuk melindungi keselamatan, tatanan, kesehatan dan moral, atau hak fundamental dan kebebasan masyarakat lainnya.

Artikel 15
1. Pihak Negara mengakui hak-hak anak terhadap kebebasan asosiasi dan kebebasan mengadakan pertemuan perdamaian.
2. Tidak ada batasan yang bisa diletakkan dalam menjalankan–hak tersebut selain daripada hak-hak yang ditentukan dalam keselarasan dengan hokum dan yang penting dalam masyarakat demokratis menurut kepentingan keamanan nasional atau keselamatan masyarakat, tatanan masyarakat (ordre public), perlindungan kesehatan atau moral atau perlindungan dan kebebasan hak dan kebebasan publik lainnya.

Kebebasan berekspresi
Anak mempunyai hak untuk mengungkapkan pandangannya, memperoleh informasi, membuat ide-ide atau informasi yang diketahui tanpa batasan
Kebebasan pemikiran, nurani dan agama
Negara menghargai hak anak atas kebebasan pemikiran, nurani dan agama, sehubungan dengan bimbingan orang tua yang tepat.
Kebebasan berkumpul
Anak-anak mempunyai sebuah hak untuk bertemu dengan orang lain, dan untuk bergabung atau membentuk perkumpulan.

Artikel 16
1. Tidak ada anak yang akan dikenai kesewenang-wenangan atau campur tangan diluar hokum terhadap hal pribadi, keluarga, rumah atau korespondensinya, tidak juga ancaman terhadap kehormatan dan reputasinya.
2. Anak mempunyai hak atas perlindungan hokum terhadap campur tangan atau ancaman seperti itu.

Artikel 17
Pihak Negara mengakui fungsi penting yang dilakukan media masa dan harus menjamin bahwa anak mempunyai akses terhadap informasi dan materi dari beragam sumber internasional dan nasional, terutama bagi yang bertujuan meningkatkan kesejahteraan sosial, moral dan spiritual dan kesehatan mental dan fisik. Pada akhirnya, Pihak Negara harus :
a) Memacu media masa untuk menyebarkan informasi dan bahan yang bermanfaat sosial dan budaya terhadap anak menurut semangat artikel 29;
b) Memacu kerjasama internasional dalam produksi, pertukaran dan penyebaran informasi tertentu dan materi dari beragam sumber internasional, nasional dan budaya;
c) Memacu produksi dan penyebaran buku anak-anak.
d) Memacu media masa untuk mempunyai perhatian khusus terhadap kebutuhan kebahasaan anak yang termasuk dalam kelompok minoritas atau pribumi;
e) Memacu perkembangan garis-garis pedoman bagi perlindungan anak dari bahan dan informasi yang membahayakan bagi kesejahteraan, ingatlah ketetapan artikel 13 dan 18.

Artikel 18
1. Pihak Negara akan menggunakan upaya-upaya terbaik untuk menjamin pengakuan prinsip bahwa kedua orangtua mempunyai tanggungjawab umum untuk pendidikan dan perkembangan anak. Orangtua atau, seperti dalam kasus perwalian sah, memiliki tanggung jawab utama bagi pendidikan dan perkembangan anak. Kepentingan anak yang paling baik akan menjadi perhatian utamanya.
2. Untuk tujuan menjamin dan meningkatkan hak-hak

Perlindungan keleluasaan pribadi
Anak-anak mempunyai hak atas perlindungan dari campur tangan terhadap keleluasaan pribadi atau privacy, keluarga, rumah dan korespondensi dan dari pencemaran nama atau fitnah.
Akses terhadap informasi yang sesuai atau tepat
Negara menjamin aksesibilitas terhadap informasi dan material dari beragam sumber-sumber bagi anak dan hal tersebut akan mendorong media masa untuk menyebarluaskan informasi yang mempunyai manfaat budaya dan sosial bagi anak dan mengambil langkah untuk melindunginya dari material yang berbahaya.
Tanggung jawab orang tua
Orang tua mempunyai tanggung jawab bersama yang utama untuk membesarkan anak, dan Negara mendukungnya dalam hal ini. Negara menyediakan bantuan yang sesuai untuk orang tua dalam membesarkan anak.

yang disusun dalam konvensi sekarang, Pihak Negara harus menyumbangkan bantuan layak pada orangtua dan perwalian sah dalam menjalankan tanggungjawab membesarkan anak mereka dan harus menjamin perkembangan institusi, fasilitas dan layanan bagi pemeliharaan anak.
3. Pihak Negara harus mengambil semua langkah-langkah tepat untuk menjamin bahwa anak dari orangtua yang bekerja memiliki hak untuk menggunakan jasa layanan pemeliharaan anak dan fasilitas yang memenuhi syarat.

Artikel 19
1. Pihak Negara harus semua mengambil langkah- langkah pendidikan dan sosial, administratif, dan legislatif yang tepat untuk melindungi anak dari segala bentuk kekerasan mental atau fisik, bahaya atau penyiksaan, perlakuan penyia-nyiaan, penganiayaan atau eksploitasi, termasuk penyiksaan seksual, selama dalam perawatan orangtua, perwalian sah atau orang lain yang merawat anak.
2. Langkah-langkah perlindungan tertentu harus, dengan tepat, mencakup prosedur efektif bagi pengembangan program sosial untuk memberi dukungan penting bagi anak dan bagi mereka yang memelihara anak, juga untuk bentuk-bentuk perlindungan lainnya dan untuk pengidentifikasian, pemberitahuan, penyerahan, penyelidikan, perlakuan dan tindak lanjut masalah-masalah penganiayaan anak yang dijelaskan di sini sebelumnya, dan, selayaknya, bagi keterlibatan hukum.

Artikel 20
1. Seorang anak yang dilepaskan dari lingkungan keluarga secara temporer atau permanen, atau demi kepentingan sendiri yang tidak bias diijinkan untuk tinggal dalam lingkungan tersebut, harus diberi perlindungan dan bantuan khusus yang diberikan oleh Negara.
2. Pihak Negara yang sesuai dengan hukum nasional harus menjamin pemeliharaan alternatif bagi anak tersebut.
3. Pemeliharaan tersebut bisa berupa, inter alia, rumah panti asuhan, kafalah dari hukum islam, adopsi atau jika perlu penempatan pada institusi yang tepat bagi pemeliharaan anal. Dalam mempertimbangkan

Perlindungan dari penyiksaan dan pengabaian
Negara melindungi anak dari penganiayaan dalam bentuk apapun oleh orang tua atau orang lain yang bertanggung jawab untuk merawat anak dan membangun program sosial yang tepat untuk pencegahan penyiksaan dan untuk perawatan korban.
Perlindungan anak tanpa keluarga
Negara berkewajiban untuk menyediakan perlindungan khusus untuk anak yang kehilangan lingkungan keluarga dan untuk menjamin bahwa asuhan keluarga alternatif yang tepat atau penempatan di institusi yang ada dalam kasus-kasus tersebut. Upaya-upaya untuk memenuhi kewajiban ini akan memberikan hak-hak yang berhubungan dengan latar belakang kebudayaan anak.

solusinya, perhatian harus diberi pada kepentingan kelangsungan pendidikan anak dan pada kesukuan, agama, latar belakang bahasa dan budaya anak.

Artikel 21
Pihak Negara yang mengakui dan/atau mengijinkan sistem adopsi akan menjamin bahwa kepentingan terbaik anak harus menjadi pertimbangan yang utama dan mereka akan:
a) Menjamin bahwa adopsi anak hanya dikuasakan oleh oleh otoritas kompeten yang menentukan bahwa adopsi diijinkan mengingat status anak yang dikaitkan dengan orangtua, kerabat dan perwalian legal dan bahwa, jika dibutuhkan, orang yang memberi perhatian terhadap adopsi atas dasar bimbingan yang mungkin diperlukan, sesuai hokum dan prosedur yang berlaku dan berdasarkan informasi yang berhubungan dan dapat dipercaya.
b) Mengakui bahwa adopsi antar Negara harus dipertimbangkan sebagai suatu alat alternatif dari perawatan anak, jika anak tidak dapat ditempatkan dalam suatu keluarga angkat atau adopsi atau tidak bisa dirawat di Negara asal anak dengan cara tepat apapun.
c) Menjamin bahwa anak yang mengalami adopsi antar Negara menikmati perlindungan dan standar yang sama dengan yang ada dalam kasus adopsi nasional.
d) Mengambil semua langkah-langkah tepat untuk menjamin bahwa, dalam adopsi antar Negara, penempatan tidak akan mengakibatkan pendapatan
keuangan yang tidak layak bagi mereka yang terlibat di dalamnya.
e) Apabila sesuai, meningkatkan tujuan-tujuan artikel yang ada sekarang dengan menyimpulkan susunan atau perjanjian bilateral atau multilateral, dalam kerangka kerja, serta usaha untuk menjamin penempatan anak di Negara lain dilakukan oleh badan atau badan kompeten.

Artikel 22
1.Pihak Negara akan mengambil langkah-langkah untuk menjamin bahwa seorang anak yang mencari status pengungsi atau dianggap sebagai pengungsi menurut hukum serta prosedur domestik atau internasional yang dapat diterapkan, baik itu ditemani atau tidak ditemani oleh orangtuanya atau

Adopsi
Di Negara-Negara dimana adopsi diakui dan/atau diizinkan, hal tersebut hanya dilakukan atas kepentingan terbaik anak, dan kemudian hanya pengawasan otoritas yang kompeten dan perlindungan keamanan bagi anak.
Anak-anak pengungsi
Pelindungan khusus akan diberikan kepada anak pengungsi atau kepada anak yang mencari status pengungsi. Ini merupakan kewajiban Negara untuk bekerja sama dengan organisasi yang kompeten yang menyediakan perlindungan dan bantuan

orang lain, menerima perlindungan dan bantuan kemanusiaan yang sesuai dalam menikmati
pelaksanaan hak-hak yang dimuat dalam konvensi sekarang dan dalam hak-hak asasi manusia internasional lain atau alat-alat kemanusiaan dimana Negara-Negara yang disebut adalah Pihak.
2. Untuk tujuan ini, Pihak Negara akan memberikan kerjasama dalam usaha-usaha apapun oleh PBB dan organisasi antar pemerintah yang kompeten atau organisasi non pemerintah bekerjasama dengan PBB untuk melindungi dan membantu anak tersebut untuk mencari orangtua atau anggota keluarganya agar memperoleh informasi penting untuk kumpul kembali dengan keluarganya. Jika orangtua dan anggota keluarga lain tidak dapat ditemukan, anak akan diberikan perlindungan sama seperti anak lain secara permanen atau temporer yang hilang dari lingkungan keluarganya karena suatu alasan, seperti yang termuat dalam konvensi sekarang.

Artkel 23
1.Pihak Negara mengakui bahwa anak cacat secara mental dan fisik seharusnya menikmati kehidupan layak dan lengkap, dalam kondisi yang menjamin martabat, meningkatkan kepercayaan diri serta memberi kesempatan pada anak untuk berpartisipasi aktif dalam masyarakat.
2. Pihak Negara mengakui hak anak cacat terhadap pemeliharaan khusus dan memacu serta menjamin perluasan bantuan, dimana permohonan tersebut dibuat, bagi anak yang memenuhi syarat dan bagi mereka yang bertanggungjawab atas pemeliharaanya yang disesuaikan dengan sumber-sumber yang tersedia dan yang sesuai dengan kondisi anak serta keadaan orangtua atau orang lain yang memelihara anak.
3. Mengakui kebutuhan khusus anak cacat, bantuan yang diperluas menurut paragrap 2 dari artikel ini akan diberikan cuma-cuma, jika memungkinkan, dengan mempertimbangkan sumber-sumber keuangan orangtua atau orang lain yang memelihara anak, dan akan dirancang untuk menjamin bahwa anak cacat mempunyai akses yang efektif untuk menerima pendidikan, training, pelayanan perawatan kesehatan, layanan rehabilitasi, persiapan untuk pekerjaan dan kesempatan rekreasi secara kondusif demi pencapaian anak terhadap integrasi sosial dan pengembangan individu semaksimal tersebut, mungkin, termasuk perkembangan spiritual dan budayanya.

Anak yang cacat
Seorang anak cacat mempunyai hak atas asuhan, pendidikan dan pelatihan khusus untuk membantunya menikmati kehidupan yang penuh dan layak dengan martabat dan memperoleh tingkat terbesar atas kepercayaan diri dan kemungkinan integrasi sosial.

4. Dengan semangat kerjasama internasional Pihak Negara akan meningkatkan, pertukaran informasi yang layak dalam bidang perawatan kesehatan dan pengobatan, psikologis serta perlakuan fungsional terhadap anak-anak cacat termasuk penyebaran dan akses terhadap informasi yang berkaitan dengan metode-metode rehabilitasi, pendidikan serta layanan vokasional, dengan tujuan agar Pihak Negara meningkatkan kemampuan dan keahliannya serta memperlebar pengalamannya dalam bidang-bidang ini. Dalam hal ini pertimbangan khusus harus diambil mengenai kebutuhan Negara-Negara berkembang.

Artikel 24
1. Pihak Negara mengakui hak anak untuk menikmati standar kesehatan tertinggi yang bisa didapat dan fasilitas pengobatan penyakit serta rehabilitasi kesehatan. Pihak Negara akan berusaha menjamin bahwa tidak ada anak yang kehilangan akses terhadap pelayanan pemeliharaan kesehatan.
2. Pihak Negara akan segera melakukan implementasi penuh hak ini dan khususnya akan mengambil langkah-langkah tepat:
a) Mengurangi angka kematian bayi dan anak;
b) Menjamin pemberian bantuan medis dan pemeliharaan kesehatan yang diperlukan bagi semua anak dengan menekankan pada perkembangan pemeliharaan kesehatan yang utama;
c) Untuk memerangi penyakit dan kurang gizi, termasuk dalam kerangka kerja pemeliharaan kesehatan yang utama, melalui, inter alia, penerapan teknologi yang tersedia dan melalui pemberian makanan bergizi yang layak serta air minum yang bersih, dengan mempertimbangkan bahaya dan resiko polusi lingkungan;
d) Menjamin perawatan kesehatan ibu sebelum dan sesudah melahirkan;
e) Menjamin bahwa semua lapisan masyarakat, khususnya orangtua dan anak, diinformasikan, mempunyai akses terhadap pendidikan dan didukung dalam menggunakan pengetahuan dasar tentang kesehatan dan gizi anak, keuntungan menyusui, kebersihan serta sanitasi lingkungan dan pencegahan terhadap kecelakaan,

Kesehatan dan layanan kesehatan
Anak mempunyai suatu hak atas perawatan medis dan kesehatan sampai standar tertinggi yang dapat dicapai. Negara menempatkan penekanan khusus pada penyediaan perawatan kesehatan primer dan pencegahan, pendidikan kesehatan umum, dan pengurangan kematian bayi. Mereka akan mendorong kerja sama internasional dalam hal ini dan bekerja keras untuk memastikan bahwa tidak ada anak yang kehilangan akses terhadap layanan kesehatan.

f) Untuk mengembangkan pemeliharaan kesehatan secara preventif, bimbingan serta pelayanan bagi orangtua dan pendidikan keluarga berencana.
g) Pihak Negara akan mengambil langkah-langkah yang efektif dan tepat dengan tujuan untuk menghilangkan hukum praktek-praktek tradisional terhadap kesehatan anak.
h) Pihak Negara akan meningkatkan dan memacu kerjasama internasional dengan bertujuan
memperoleh realisasi penuh hak yang diakui secara progresif dalam artikel ini. Dalam hal ini,
pertimbangan khusus harus diambil terhadap kebutuhan Negara-Negara berkembang.

Artikel 25
Pihak Negara mengakui hak anak yang telah ditempatkan oleh otoritas kompeten dengan tujuan pemeliharaan, perlindungan atau pengobatan kesehatan fisik dan mentalnya, sampai ke tinjauan pengobatan periodik yang diberikan kepada anak dan semua keadaan lain yang relevan pada penempatannya.

Artikel 26
1. Pihak Negara akan mengakui atas hak setiap anak untuk mendapatkan manfaat dari keamanan sosial, termasuk jaminan sosial, serta akan mengambil langkah-langkah yang diperlukan untuk memperoleh realisasi penuh atas hak ini menurut hokum nasionalnya.
2. Jika tepat manfaat-manfaat tersebut harus diberikan dengan mempertimbangkan sumber-sumber dan keadaan anak serta orang yang mempunyai tanggungjawab untuk memelihara anak, juga pertimbangan lain yang berhubungan dengan sebuah permohonan demi keuntungan yang dibuat oleh atau atas nama anak.

Artikel 27
1. Pihak Negara mengakui hak setiap anak terhadap standar hidup yang layak bagi perkembangan fisik, mental, spirit, moral, serta sosial anak.
2. Orangtua atau pihak lain yang bertanggung jawab atas anak mempunyai tanggungjawab utama untuk mengamankan kondisi-kondisi hidup yang diperlukan bagi perkembangan anak, menurut kemampuan dan kapasitas keuangannya.

Tinjauan penempatan periodik
Seorang anak yang ditempatkan oleh Negara untuk alasan perawatan, perlindungan atau pengobatan berhak untuk mendapatkan evaluasi atas penempatan tersebut secara teratur.
Jaminan sosial
Anak mempunyai hak untuk mengambil manfaat dari jaminan sosial termasuk asuransi sosial.
Standar hidup
Setiap anak mempunyai hak atas standar hidup yang memadai untuk perkembangan sosial, moral, spiritual, mental dan fisiknya. Orang tua mempunyai tanggung jawab utama untuk menjamin bahwa anak mempunyai standar hidup yang memadai. Tugas Negara adalah untuk menjamin bahwa tanggung jawab ini dipenuhi dan tanggung jawab Negara dapat meliputi bantuan materi kepada orang tua dan anaknya.
Pendidikan
Anak mempunyai hak atas pendidikan dan tugas Negara adalah untuk menjamin bahwa pendidikan dasar adalah bebas biaya dan wajib, untuk mendorong bentuk-bentuk berbeda dari pendidikan menengah yang aksesibel bagi setiap anak dan untuk memberikan pendidikan tinggi untuk semua menurut dasar kapasitasnya. Mata pelajaran sekolah harus konsisten dengan hak-hak dan martabat anak. Negara mengikutsertakan kerja sama internasional untuk melaksanakan hak ini
.
3. Pihak Negara, menurut kondisi nasional dan dalam sarananya, akan mengambil langkah-langkah tepat untuk membantu orangtua dan pihak lain yang bertanggung jawab atas anak untuk mengimplementasikan hak ini dan jika diperlukan akan memberi bantuan materi dan program-program dukungan, khususnya yang berhubungan dengan makanan bergizi, pakaian serta perumahan.
4. Pihak Negara akan mengambil langkah-langkah tepat untuk melindungi penyembuhan pemeliharaan anak dari orangtua atau pihak lain yang mempunyai tanggung jawab keuangan bagi anak, baik itu dalam Pihak Negara dan dari luar Negara. Pada khususnya, dimana seseorang mempunyai tanggung jawab keuangan atas anak tinggal di suatu Negara yang berbeda dari Negara anak itu sendiri, Pihak Negara akan meningkatkan pencapaian persetujuan internasional atau rangkuman dari suatu perjanjian, juga membuat perjanjian tepat lainnya.

Artikel 28
1. Pihak Negara mengakui hak anak terhadap pendidikan, dan dengan tujuan untuk mencapai hak ini secara progresif dan berdasarkan kesempatan yang sama, secara khusus mereka akan:
a) Mewajibkan pendidikan dasar dan tersedia secara cuma-cuma bagi semua;
b) Memacu perkembangan berbagai pendidikan umum, termasuk pendidikan kejuruan dan
umum, menyediakan dan memudahkannya bagi setiap anak, dan mengambil langkah-langkah tepat seperti pengenalan pendidikan bebas bea dan menawarkan bantuan keuangan jika dibutuhkan;
c) Menyediakan kemudahan untuk pendidikan tinggi bagi semua berdasarkan kapasitas dasar dengan setiap sarana yang tepat;
d) Membuat informasi kejuruan dan pendidikan serta bimbingan tersedia dan mudah bagi semua anak;
e) Mengambil langkah-langkah untuk memacu kehadiran secara teratur di sekolah dan
penurunan angka drop-out.
2. Pihak Negara akan mengambil langkah-langkah tepat untuuk menjamin bahwa disipiln sekolah disusun secara konsisten dengan martabat anak manusia serta selaras dengan konvensi sekarang.
3. Pihak Negara akan meningkatkan dan memacu kerjasama internasional dalam hubungannya dengan pendidikan, khususnya bertujuan memberi kontribusi terhadap penghapusan kebodohan dan buta huruf di seluruh dunia dan memberi kemudahan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan dan pengetahuan teknis serta metode-metode pengajaran modern. Dalam hal ini, pertimbangan khusus mengenai kebutuhan Negara-Negara berkembang akan diambil.

Artikel 29
1. Pihak Negara menyetujui bahwa pendidikan anak akan diarahkan pada:
a) Perkembangan kepribadian, bakat dan kemampuan fisik serta mental anak sepenuhnya dengan segala potensinya;
b) Perkembangan penghargaan terhadap hak-hak asasi manusia dan kebebasan fundamental, serta bagi prinsip-prinsip yang diabadikan dalam piagam PBB;
c) Perkembangan penghargaan terhadap orangtua anak, identitas budaya, bahasa, serta nilai-nilainya, bagi nilai-nilai nasional di Negara dimana anak itu tinggal, Negara dari mana anak itu berasal, serta dari berbagai peradaban yang berbeda daripadanya;
d) Persiapan anak untuk menghadapi kehidupan yang bertanggung jawab dalam lingkungan masyarakat dengan bebas, dengan semangat pengertian, perdamaian, toleransi, persamaan jenis kelamin, persahabatan diantara manusia, kesukuan, kelompok agama dan nasional serta orang-orang pribumi;
e) Pengembangan penghargaan bagi lingkungan alami.
2. Tidak ada bagian dari artikel ini atau artikel 28 akan ditafsirkan untuk mencampuri kebebasan individu dan badan-badan untuk membangun dan mengarahkan institusi pendidikan, selalu dikaitkan dengan ketaatan prinsip-prinsip yang dimaktub dalam paragraf 1 dari artikel ini dan terhadap persyaratan-persyaratan bahwa pendidikan yang diberikan dalam suatu institusi tertentu akan selaras dengan standar minimum tersebut seperti yang mungkin ditetapkan oleh Negara.

Tujuan-tujuan pendidikan
Pendidikan bertujuan untuk mengembangkan pribadi, bakat dan kemampuan mental dan fisik anak seoptimal mungkin. Pendidikan menyiapkan anak untuk kehidupan orang dewasa yang aktif dalam masyarakat yang bebas dan mengangkat penghargaan bagi orang tua anak, identitas budayanya sendiri, bahasa dan nilai-nilainya dan untuk latar belakang budaya dan nilai-nilai orang lain.

Artikel 30
Di Negara-Negara dimana kesukuan, agama atau bahasa minoritas atau orang pribumi berada, seorang anak yang berasal dari minoritas tertentu atau pribumi tidak akan dilanggar haknya, dalam komunitas dengan anggota-anggota lain dalam kelompoknya, untuk menikmati kebudayaannya sendiri, untuk menganut dan mempraktekan agamanya sendiri, atau menggunakan bahasanya sendiri.

Artikel 31
1. Pihak Negara mengakui hak anak untuk beristirahat dan berlibur, untuk melakukan aktivitas rekreasi dan bermain yang tepat sesuai denga usia anak dan untuk berpartisipasi dengan bebas dalam kehidupan budaya dan seni.
2. Pihak Negara akan menghargai dan menjungjung hak anak untuk berpartisipasi penuh dalam kehidupan seni dan budaya serta akan memacu pemberian kesempatan yang sama dan sesuai untuk budaya, seni, aktivitas hiburan dan rekreasi.

Artikel 32
1. Pihak Negara mengakui hak anak untuk dilindungi dari eksploitasi ekonomi dan dari melakukan suatu pekerjaan yang bisa berbahaya atau mengganggu pendidikannya, atau berbahaya bagi kesehatan anak atau perkembangan fisik, mental, spirit, moral atau sosial.
2. Pihak Negara akan mengambil langkah-langkah legislatif, administrasi, sosial dan pendidikan untuk menjamin implementasi artikel ini. Akhirnya, dan yang berhubungan dengan penyediaan alat-alat internasional yang relevan, Pihak Negara secara khusus akan ;
a) Memberi usia minimum untuk diperbolehkan bekerja;
b) Memberikan peraturan kondisi dan jam kerja yang sesuai;
c) Memberikan hukuman atau sangsi yang tepat untuk menjamin pelaksanaan artikel ini.

Anak-anak minoritas atau penduduk asli Anak-anak dari masyarakat minoritas dan
penduduk asli mempunyai hak untuk menikmati kebudayaan mereka dan untuk menjalankan agama dan bahasanya sendiri.
Waktu luang, rekreasi dan kegiatan-kegiatan budaya
Anak mempunyai hak atas waktu luang, bermain dan ikut serta dalam kegiatan artistik dan kebudayaan
Pekerja anak
Anak mempunyai hak untuk dilindungi dari pekerjaan yang mengancam kesehatan,
pendidikan atau perkembangan mereka. Negara menetapkan usia minimum untuk
bekerja dan mengatur persyaratan atau ketentuan kerja.


Artikel 33
Pihak Negara akan melaksanakan semua langkah tepat, termasuk langkah-langkah legislatif, administrasi, social dan pendidikan, untuk melindungi anak dari penggunaan narkotik dan bahan-bahan psychotropic secara tidak sah seperti yang dijelaskan dalam perjanjian internasional yang relevan, serta mencegah penggunaan anak dalam produksi dan penjualan zat-zat tertentu yang tidak sah.

Artikel 34
Pihak Negara akan melindungi anak dari segala bentuk eksploitasi seksual dan penganiayaan seksual. Untuk tujuan ini, Pihak Negara khususnya akan mengambil langkah-langkah nasional, bilateral dan multilateral yang tepat untuk mencegah;
a) Paksaan atau bujukan terhadap anak untuk melakukan suatu aktifitas sexual yang
melanggar hukum;
b) Eksploitasi penggunaan anak dalam prostitusi atau prakte-praktek seksual yang melanggar hukum lainnya;
c) Eksploitasi penggunaan anak dalam pertunjukan dan bahan-bahan pornografi.

Artikel 35
Pihak Negara akan mengambil langkah-langkah tepat secara nasional, bilateral dan multilateral untuk mencegah penculikan, penjualan atau perdagangan anak untuk tujuan apapun atau dalam bentuk apapun.

Artikel 36
Pihak Negara akan melindungi anak dari bentuk-bentuk eksploitasi lainnya yang merugikan terhadap aspek-aspek kesejahteraan anak.

Artikel 37
Pihak Negara akan menjamin bahwa:
a) Tidak ada anak yang akan dikenakan penyiksaan atau kekejaman lainnya, ketidakmanusiawian atau penghinaan atau hukuman. Baik itu hukuman Negara ataupun penjara seumur hidup tanpa kemungkinan bebas tidak akan dijatuhkan bagi pelanggaran yang dilakukan oleh orang dibawah usia 18 tahun;

Penyalahgunaan obat-obatan
Anak-anak mempunyai hak atas perlindungan dari penggunaan narkotik dan obat psikotropik dan dari keterlibatan dalam produksi atau distribusinya.
Eksploitasi seksual
Negara melindungi anak-anak dari eksploitasi dan penganiayaan seksual termasuk pelacuran dan keterlibatan dalam pornografi.
Penjualan, perdagangan dan penculikan
Ini merupakan kewajiban Negara untuk melakukan setiap upaya untuk mencegah penjualan, perdagangan dan penculikan anak.
Bentuk eksploitasi lainnya
Anak mempunyai hak atas perlindungan dari semua bentuk eksploitasi yang
merugikan aspek kesejahteraan anak manapun yang tidak dicakup dalam artikel
32, 33, 34 dan 35.
Penyiksaan dan pencabutan kebebasan
Tidak ada anak yang diperkenankan menjalani penyiksaan, perlakuan kejam atau
hukuman, penangkapan di luar hukum atau pencabutan kebebasan. Baik hukuman mati dan penjara seumur hidup tanpa kemungkinan untuk dibebaskan, dilarang bagi pelanggaran yang dilakukan oleh seseorang di bawah 18 tahun. Anak yang dicabut kebebasannya harus dipisahkan dariorang dewasa kecuali dianggap dalam kepentingan terbaik anak untuk tidak dilakukan. Seorang anak yang ditahan akan mempunyai pendamping legal atau lainnya juga kontak dengan keluarga.

b) Tidak ada anak yang akan dihilangkan kebebasannya secara tidak sah atau sewenang-wenang. Penangkapan, penahanan, atau memenjarakan seorang anak akan disesuaikan dengan hukum dan hanya akan digunakan sebagai suatu ukuran sumber bantuan terakhir dan untuk jangka waktu yang paling pendek ;
c) Setiap anak yang hilang kebebasannya akan diperlakukan secara kemanusiaan serta menghargai martabat seorang manusia yang melekat, dan dengan mempertimbangkan kebutuhan orang sesuai dengan usianya. Pada khususnya, setiap anak yang hilang kebebasannya akan dipisahkan dari orang dewasa kecuali jika dianggap menurut kebutuhan terbaik anak tidak melakukan hal demikian dan akan mempunyai hak untuk tetap berhubungan dengan keluarganya melalui korespondensi dan kunjungan, aman berada dalam keadaan pengecualian;
d) Setiap anak yang hilang kebebasannya akan mempunyai hak untuk mendapatkan bantuan legal dan tepat, juga hak untuk menentang sahnya pencabutan kebebasannya didepan pengadilan atau otoritas kompeten, independen, dan netral lain, dan untuk mengambil keputusan dari tindakan tersebut.

Artikel 38
1. Pihak Negara berusaha menghormati dan menjamin penghargaan terhadap peraturan-peraturan hokum kemanusiaan internasional yang dapat diterapkan padanya dalam konflik senjata yang relevan dengan anak.
2. Pihak Negara akan mengambil langkah-langkah nyata bahwa orang yang belum mencapai usia 15 tahun tidak boleh berpartisipasi langsung dengan peperangan.
3. Pihak Negara akan menahan diri untuk merekrut orang yang belum mencapai usia 15 tahun ke dalam angkatan bersenjata. Dalam merekrut orang-orang tersebut yang telah mencapai usia 15 tahun tapi belum mencapai usia 18 tahun, Pihak Negara akan berusaha memberikan prioritas bagi mereka yang paling tua.
4. Sesuai dengan kewajibannya dalam hukumkemanusiaan internasional untuk melindungi masyarakat sipil dalam konflik bersenjata, Pihak Negara akan mengambil semua langkah-langkah nyata untuk menjamin perlindungan dan pemlihran anak-anak yang terlibat dalam konflik senjata

Konflik bersenjata
Pihak Negara harus mengambil semua tindakan yang memungkinkan untuk menjamin bahwa anak-anak di bawah umur 15 tahun tidak ikut serta secara langsung dalam perang. Tidak ada anak di bawah umur 15 tahun yang direkrut ke dalam angkatan bersenjata. Negara juga menjamin perlindungan dan pengasuhan anak-anak yang menderita akibat konflik bersenjata seperti yang dijelaskan dalam hokum internasional yang relevan.

Artikel 39
Pihak Negara akan mengambil langkah-langkah tepat untuk meningkatkan penyembuhan psychologis dan fisik serta reintegrasi sosial seorang anak yang merupakan korban dari; segala bentuk kesewenang-wenangan, eksploitasi, atau penyiksaan; penganiayaan atau bentuk kekejaman lainnya, perlakuan tidak manusiawi atau penghinaan atau penghukuman; atau konflik senjata. Penyembuhan dan reintegrasi tersebut harus berlangsung dalam suatu lingkungan yang mendukung kesehatan, penghargaan diri dan martabat anak.

Artikel 40
1. Pihak Negara mengakui hak setiap anak yang telah dinyatakan, dituduh, atau diakui telah melanggar hukum pidana diperlakukan secara konsisten dengan peningkatan martabat dan kebaikan anak, yang memperkuat kepentingan anak bagi hak-hak asasi manusia dan kebebasan fundamental orang lainnya dan dengan mempertimbangkan usia anak serta keinginan meningkatkan reintegrasi anak dan anggapan anak terhadap peranannya yang berguna dalam masyarakat.
2. Pada akhirnya, sehubungan dengan ketetapan relevan dari instrumen internasional, Pihak Negara secara khusus akan menjamin bahwa :
a) Tidak ada anak yang dinyatakan , dituduh, atau diakui telah melanggar hukum pidana dengan alasan tindakan atau kelalaian yang dilarang oleh hukum internasional atau nasional pada saat mereka terlibat;
b) Setiap anak yang dinyatakan atau dituduh telah melanggar hukum pidana paling tidak mempunyai jaminan berikut :
i. Dianggap tidak berdosa sampai terbukti bersalah menurut hukum;
ii. Diberitahu dengan cepat dan langsung tentang tuduhan-tuduhan terhadapnya, dan, bila memungkinkan, melalui orangtuanya atau perwalian legal, dan mendapat bantuan tepat dan legal dalam mempersiapkan dan mengajukan pembelaan;


Rawatan atau Pengasuhan rehabilitatif
Negara mempunyai sebuah kewajiban untuk menjamin bahwa anak korban konflik bersenjata, penyiksaan, pengabaian, penganiayaan atau eksploitasi menerima pengobatan yang tepat untuk kesembuhannya dan re-integrasi sosial.
Administrasi peradilan anak muda
Seorang anak yang bermasalah dengan hukum mempunyai hak atas perlakuan yang meningkatkan martabat dan harga diri anak, mempertimbangkan usia anak dan mentargetkan untuk mengintegrasikannya kembali ke masyarakat. Anak berhak atas jaminan dasar juga pendamping legal atau lainnya untuk pembelaannya. Pengadilan dan penempatan institusional/penjara akan dihindarkan jika memungkinkan.

iii. Agar masalah tersebut diselesaikan tanpa penundaan oleh otoritas kompeten, independen, netral atau badan hokum dalam sidang yang adil sesuai dengan hukum, dengan keberadaan bantuan legal dan yang lainnya dan, kecuali jika dianggap bukan merupakan kepentingan terbaik anak, khususnya dengan mempertimbangkan situasi atau usia, orangtuanya atau wali sah;
iv. Tidak dipaksa untuk memberi kesaksian atau mengakui kesalahan; untuk menguji atau diuji kesaksian yang berlawanan dan untuk memperoleh keikutsertaan dan pengujian saksi-saksi mengatasnamakannya berdasarkan kondisi persamaan;
v. Jika dianggap melanggar hukum pidana, untuk mengambil keputusan ini dan langkah-langkah lain yang mempunyai konsekuensinya maka harus dipertimbangkan oleh otoritas kompeten, independen, dan netral atau badan hokum menurut hukum;
vi. Memperoleh bantuan cuma-cuma dari seorang alih bahasa jika seorang anak tidak bisa memahami atau berbicara bahasa yang digunakan;
vii. Memperoleh perlindungan sepenuhnya terhadap rahasia pribadinya dalam setiap tahap proses pelaporan.
3. Pihak Negara akan terus meningkatkan pelaksanaan hukum, prosedur, otoritas-otoritas dan institusi terutama yang dapat diterapkan pada anak yang dinyatakan, dituduh, diakui telah melanggar hokum pidana, serta pada khususnya :
a) Penetapan usia minimum dibawah dimana anak akan dianggap tidak memiliki kapasitas
melanggar hukum pidana;
b) Bila sesuai dan dikehendaki, langkah-langkah untuk menangani anak tersebut tanpa terpaksa melakukan proses hukum, dengan menimbang hak asasi manusia dan perlindungan legal sepenuhnya dijungjung tinggi.
4. Suatu variasi penempatan, seperti pemeliharaan, perwalian dan tatanan pengawasan; bimbingan, masa percobaan; pengangkatan; pendidikan dan program-program training kejuruan dan alternatif lain terhadap pemeliharaan institusional harustersedia untuk menjamin bahwa anak ditangani secara tepat untuk kesejahteraannya serta seimbang baik menurut keadaan dan pelanggarannya.

Artikel 41
Tidak ada dalam konvensi ini yang akan mempengaruhi suatu ketetapan yang lebih kondusif terhadap realisasi hak-hak anak dan yang dapat termuat dalam:
a) Hukum suatu Pihak Negara; atau
b) Hukum internasional dalam angkatan bersenjata bagi Negara tersebut.

Bagian II
Artikel 42
Pihak Negara berusaha untuk membuat prinsip-prinsip dan ketetapan konvensi dari konvensi yang sudah dikenal luas, dengan cara tepat dan aktif, bagi orang dewasa dan anak-anak.

Artikel 43
1. Untuk tujuan menguji kemajuan yang dibuat oleh Pihak Negara dalam memperoleh realisasi tugas yang dijalankan dalam konvensi ini, harus ada sebuah komite yang dibuat untuk hak-hak anak, yang akan menjalankan fungsi yang diberikan selanjutnya.
2. Komite tersebut akan terdiri dari 10 ahli bermoral tinggi dan berkemampuan yang diakui dalam bidangnya yang termasuk dalam konvensi ini.
Anggota anggota komite ini akan dipilih oleh Pihak Negara diantara bangsa-bangsanya dan akan membantu kapasitas pribadinya, pertimbangan diberikan pada distribusi geograpis yang pantas, juga pada sistem legal yang utama.
3. Anggota-anggota komite akan dipilih dengan suara rahasia berdasarkan daftar orang-orang yang dinominasikan oleh Pihak Negara. Setiap Pihak Negara boleh menominasikan seorang diantara bangsa-bangsa mereka

Penghormatan atas standar yang lebih tinggi
Bilamana ketetapan standar dalam hokum nasional dan internasional yang berlaku yang relevan dengan hak-hak anak lebih tinggi dari standar dalam Konvensi ini, standar yang lebih tinggi tersebut akan selalu berlaku.
Artikel Pelaksanaan dan pemberlakuan
Ketetapan dari artikel 42-54 khususnya menegaskan bahwa:
(i) Kewajiban Negara untuk membuat hak-hak yang terkandung dalam Konvensi ini diketahui secara luas baik oleh orang dewasa maupun anak-anak.
(ii) Pembentukan Komite untuk Hak-hak Anak terdiri dari sepuluh ahli, yang akan mempertimbangkan laporan yang harus diserahkan Pihak Negara dari Konvensi ini dua tahun setelah ratifikasi dan setiap lima tahun kemudian. Konvensi berlaku – dan oleh karena itu Komite akan dibentuk setelah 20 Negara telah meratifikasinya.
(iii) Pihak Negara harus membuat laporannya tersedia secara luas bagi masyarakat umum.
(iv) Komite dapat mengajukan bahwa penelitian khusus dilakukan atas masalah spesifik yang berhubungan dengan hak-hak anak, dan dapat menyebarkan evaluasinya agar diketahui setiap Pihak Negara yang berkaitan dan juga Dewan Jenderal PBB.

4. Pemilihan awal untuk komite akan dilangsungkan tidak lebih dari 6 bulan setelah tanggal masuknya kekuatan konvensi ini dan kemudian setiap tahun kedua. Paling sedikit 4 bulan sebelum tanggal tiap pemilihan, sekjen PBB akan mengirim surat pada Pihak Negara dan mengundangnya untuk menyerahkan nominasi-nominasinya dalam waktu 2 bulan. Kemudian sekjen PBB akan mempersiapkan daftar dalam susunan alfabet dari semua orang yang dinominasikan, menunjukan semua Pihak Negara yang telah menominasikan mereka, dan menyerahkannya ke Pihak Negara untuk konvensi ini.
5. Pemilihan akan diselenggarakan pada sidang-sidang Pihak Negara yang dirapatkan oleh sekjen di markas besar PBB. Pada sidang-sidang tersebut, dimana 2/3 Pihak Negara akan mengangkat suatu quorum, orang yang dipilih untuk komite akan merupakan yang memperoleh jumlah suara terbesar dan mayoritas suara yang mutlak dari perwakilan-perwakilan Pihak Negara yang hadir dan memberi suara.
6. Anggota-anggota komite akan dipilih untuk jangka waktu 4 tahun. Mereka harus memenuhi syarat untuk pemilihan kembali jika dinominasikan. Masa dari lima anggota yang dipilih pada pemilihan pertama akan habis pada akhir dua tahun; segera setelah pemilihan pertama, nama-nama dari kelima anggota tersebut akan dipilih secara terpisah oleh banyak pemimpin sidang.
7. Jika ada seorang anggota komite meninggal atau mengundurkan diri atau menyatakan bahwa karena sebab-sebab lain dia tidak lagi bisa melakukan tugas-tugas komite, Pihak Negara yang menominasikan anggota tersebut akan menunjuk ahli lain dari sekian banyak bangsa untuk membantu dalam sisa masa tersebut, harus berdasarkan persetujuan komite.
8. Komite akan menetapkan peraturan prosedurnya sendiri.
9. Komite akan memilih staf-stafnya sendiri untuk jangka waktu dua tahun.
10. Pertemuan-pertemuan komite biasanya akan diselenggarakan di markas besar PBB atau di tempat lain yang nyaman seperti yang ditentukan oleh komite. Komite biasanya akan bertemu setiap tahun. Lama waktu pertemuan komite tersebut akan ditentukan, dan ditinjau, jika perlu, oleh sebuah rapat Pihak Negara untuk konvensi ini, berdasarkan persetujuan dewan umum

(v) Untuk “mengangkat pelaksanaan efektif dari Konvensi tersebut dan untuk mendorong kerja sama internasional”, agensi khusus PBB (seperti ILO, WHO, dan UNESCO) dan UNICEF akan dapat menghadiri pertemuan Komite tersebut. Bersama dengan badan lain yang diakui “kompeten”, termasuk organisasi non pemerintah dengan status konsultatif dengan PBB dan badan PBB seperti UNHCR, mereka dapat menyerahkan informasi yang berkaitan kepada Komite dan diminta untuk memberikan saran tentang pelaksanaan Konvensi yang optimal.

11. Sekjen PBB akan menyediakan fasilitas dan staf-staf yang diperlukan untuk pelaksanaan efektif fungsi-fungsi komite dibawah konvensi ini .
12. Dengan persetujuan dewan umum, anggota komite yang ditetapkan dalam konvensi ini akan menerima pembayaran dari sumber-sumber PBB dengan syarat-syarat dan peraturan yang diputuskan dewan.

Artikel 44
1. Pihak Negara menyerahkan laporan-laporan tentang langkah-langkah yang mereka telah ambil yang mempengaruhi hak-hak yang diakui didalamnya dan tentang kemajuan yang dibuat tentang penggunaan hak-hak tersebut, pada komite, melalui sekjen PBB:
a) Dalam waktu dua tahun sejak berlakunya konvensi bagi Pihak Negara yang bersangkutan;
b) Kemudian setiap lima tahun.
2. Laporan-laporan yang dibuat berdasarkan artikel ini akan menunjukan faktor-faktor dan kesulitan-kesulitan, jika ada, mempengaruhi tingkat penyelesaian tugas berdasarkan konvensi ini. Laporan juga akan terdiri dari cukup informasi yang cukup untuk memberi komite pemahaman komprehensif terhadap implementasi konvensi di Negara yang bersangkutan.
3. Suatu Pihak Negara yang telah menyerahkan laporan awal komprehensif pada komite tidak perlu, dalam laporan berikutnya yang diserahkan menurut paragraf 1 (b) dari artikel ini, mengulangi informasi dasar yang diberikan sebelumnya.
4. Komite boleh meminta informasi lebih jauh yang relevan dengan implementasi konvensi dari Pihak Negara.
5. Komite akan menyerahkan laporan-laporan tentang aktivitas-aktivitasnya pada dewan umum, melalui dewan sosial dan ekonomi, setiap dua tahun.
6. Pihak Negara akan membuat laporan-laporannya tersedia secara luas bagi masyarakat di Negaranya sendiri.

Artikel 45
Untuk meningkatkan implementasi efektif dari konvensi dan memacu kerjasama internasional dalam bidang yang tercakup dalam konvensi:
a) Agen-agen khusus, dana anak-anak PBB, dan organ-organ PBB lainnya akan ditugaskan untuk diwakilkan pada pertimbangan pelaksanaan ketetapan-ketetapan tersebut pada konvensi ini yang berada dalam cakupan mandatnya. Komite boleh mengundang agen-agen khusus, dana anak-anak PBB dan otritas kompeten, dan organ-organ PBB lainnya jika dianggap tepat untuk memberikan saran kepada para ahli mengenai pelaksanaan konvensi dalam bidang-bidang yang berada dalam cakupan mandatnya. Komite bisa mengundang agen-agen khusus, dana anak-anak PBB dan organ PBB lainnya untuk menyerahkan laporan tentang implementasi konvensi di daerah yang dalam cakupan aktivitasnya;
b) Jika dianggap tepat komite akan meneruskannya kepada agen-agen khusus, dana anak-anak PBB dan badan-badan kompeten, laporan-laporan dari Pihak Negara yang mencakup sebuah permohonan, atau menunjukan suatu kebutuhan, bagi bantuan dan saran teknis, bersamaan dengan saran-saran dan observasi komite, jika ada, dalam permohonan dan petunjuk-petunjuk ini;
c) Komite itu bisa memberikan rujukan pada dewanumum untuk memohon sekjen untuk menjalankan penelitian-penelitian tentang masalah-masalah khusus yang berhubungan dengan hak-hak anak;
d) Komite bisa membuat saran-saran dan rekomendasi umum berdasarkan informasi yang diterima menurut artikel 44 dan 45 dari konvensi ini. Saran-saran tersebut dan rekomendasi umum akan dikirim ke suatu Pihak Negara yang bersangkutan dan dilaporkan ke dewan umum, bersamaan dengan komentar dari Pihak Negara, jika ada.

Bagian III
Artikel 46
Artikel ini akan dibuka bagi tandatangan oleh seluruh Negara.

Artikel 47
Konvensi ini ditujukan untuk pengesahan. Alat-alat pengesahan akan disimpan dengan sekjen PBB.

Artikel 48
Konvensi ini akan tetap terbuka bagi penyetujuan oleh suatu Negara. Alat-alat penyetujuan akan disimpan bersama dengan sekjen PBB

Artikel 49
1. Konvensi ini akan mulai mempunyai kekuatan pada hari ke 30 sejak tanggal penyimpanan alat pengesahan atau penyetujuan ke 20.
2. Karena tiap Negara mengesahkan atau menyetujui konvensi setelah penyimpanan alat pengesahan atau penyetujuan ke 20, konvensi akan mulai mempunyai kekuatan pada hari ke 30 setelah penyimpanan alat-alat pengesahan atau penyetujuanoleh Negara tersebut.

Artikel 50
1. Suatu Pihak Negara boleh mengajukan amandemen dan merangkainya bersama dengan sekjen PBB. Sekjen kemudian akan membahas amandemen yang diajukan ke Pihak Negara, dengan permohonan bahwa mereka menunjukan apakah mereka menginginkan sebuah konferensi Pihak Negara untuk tujuan mempertimbangkan dan memberikan suara terhadap proposal tersebut. Kalau sekiranya, dalam waktu 4 bulan sejak tanggal pembahasan tersebut, paling sedikit 1/3 dari Pihak Negara yang menginginkan konferensi tersebut, sekjen akan mengadakan konferensi di bawah pimpinan PBB.
Suatu amandemen yang diadaptasikan oleh mayoritas Pihak Negara yang hadir dan memberi suara pada konferensi akan diserahkan pada dewan umum untuk persetujuan.
2. Suatu amandemen yang diadaptasikan menurut paragraf 1 dari artikel ini akan memiliki kekuatan jika sudah disetujui oleh dewan umum PBB dan diterima oleh 2/3 mayoritas Pihak Negara.
3. Bila suatu amandemen memiliki kekuatan, amandemen tersebut akan mengikat Pihak Negara tersebut yang telah menerimanya, Pihak Negara lain masih terikat oleh ketetapan konvensi ini dan amandemen-amandemen yang lebih awal yang telah mereka terima.

Artikel 51
1. Sekjen PBB akan menerima dan mengedarkannya ke seluruh Negara teks syarat-syarat yang dibuat oleh Negara-Negara pada waktu pengesahan atau penyetujuan.
2. Suatu persyaratan yang tidak sesuai dengan obyek dan maksud konvensi ini tidak akan diijinkan.
3. Syarat-syarat tersebut dapat ditarik kapanpun dengan pemberitahuan mengenai hasilnya ke Sekjen PBB, yang kemudian akan memberitahukan ke seluruh Negara. Pemberitahuan tersebut akan berpengaruh pada tanggal diterimanya oleh Sekjen.

Artikel 52
Suatu Pihak Negara bisa menggugat konvensi ini dengan pemberitahuan tertulis ke Sekjen PBB. Pengaduan ini menjadi efektif satu tahun setelah tanggal diterimanya pemberitahuan oleh sekjen.

Artikel 53
Sekjen PBB dirancang sebagai tempat penyimpanan konvensi ini.

Artikel 54
Konvensi yang asli, dimana seluruh teksnya dalam bahasa arab, cina, inggris, perancis, rusia dan spanyol sama aslinya, akan disimpan bersama sekjen PBB.
Dengan kesaksian dari para perwakilan yang dikuasakan, yang diberikan kewenangan penuh oleh pemerintah masing-masing, telah menandatangani konvensi ini.


======= ***=======





          

Obama confronts reality at last   

Cache   

Obama confronts reality at last Jerry Halberstadt Thu, 01/22/2015 - 13:20

In last year's State of the Union, President Obama stated that political opposition to dealing with climate change made it impossible to discuss. This year, he finally brought up the subject. And while the administration has been taking steps on greenhouse emissions, and has begun to make international agreements, we need a much more intensive national effort.

Creating an economy based on energy efficiency and renewable energy sources will create good jobs. But we need to mobilize in a serious national effort if we are to preserve a planet that supports life for nature, for people, and for civilization

The President had this to say in his State of the Union 2015:

"2014 was the planet’s warmest year on record. Now, one year doesn’t make a trend, but this does—14 of the 15 warmest years on record have all fallen in the first 15 years of this century."

"I’ve heard some folks try to dodge the evidence by saying they’re not scientists; that we don’t have enough information to act. Well, I’m not a scientist, either. But you know what—I know a lot of really good scientists at NASA, and NOAA, and at our major universities. The best scientists in the world are all telling us that our activities are changing the climate, and if we do not act forcefully, we’ll continue to see rising oceans, longer, hotter heat waves, dangerous droughts and floods, and massive disruptions that can trigger greater migration, conflict, and hunger around the globe. The Pentagon says that climate change poses immediate risks to our national security. We should act like it."

"That’s why, over the past six years, we’ve done more than ever before to combat climate change, from the way we produce energy, to the way we use it. That’s why we’ve set aside more public lands and waters than any administration in history. And that’s why I will not let this Congress endanger the health of our children by turning back the clock on our efforts. I am determined to make sure American leadership drives international action. In Beijing, we made an historic announcement—the United States will double the pace at which we cut carbon pollution, and China committed, for the first time, to limiting their emissions. And because the world’s two largest economies came together, other nations are now stepping up, and offering hope that, this year, the world will finally reach an agreement to protect the one planet we’ve got."

Source: https://Model.blue/splash/3T2aKK2KjlL9qkPibXiHLpxaeeHm2irBp_PLUS_OCK1goNz8nabOHi4x_SLASH_agcoQbH75gVF5rpm_SLASH_jizIfTST8wqgiaw2tOwDVJi0RLHcr1nkEXCfmtVdvJy7_SLASH_B1KI8lnvKrpYT8Ao0V6_PLUS_uad8Vvb4lTeqM4PR8xOaTia_PLUS_rnr6jmXtlgJGM_EQUALS…


          

Calendar | Tadeo / Spring 2019 / Asia Tour   

Cache   

Tadeo will be kicking off his Asia tour on May 10th, at Lantern, Beijing. From there he will be touching down at 44KW, Shanghai, then onto 15 Feet Under, Busan. On the 24th he will be in Taipei at B1, then onto Volnost, Seoul. He will be winding things down, but most [...]

          

Johannes Volk / Summer 2019 / Asia Tour   

Cache   

Johannes Volk makes his Asia debut with 5 upcoming dates kicking things off at Lantern in Beijing on august 30, then moving on to 44KW in Shanghai. Vietnam will welcome him at Lighthouse in Ho Chi Minh City, then he’ll move forth to Barrio in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He will conclude his [...]

          

Men - Cartier's 'father-son' Valentine draws derision in China   

Cache   

Beijing - French luxury brand Cartier is facing online mockery in China over a Valentine-themed advert which appears to show a gay couple who are described in a caption as...

Next Page: 25
00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 
2020-08-15 10:11:48